Ultra-wideband (UWB) is pulse or impulse radio technology that has been refined into a useable method to meet the demands of Internet of Things (IoT) network traffic. Current and future communication (5G) networks will use UWB and similar technologies to achieve 1ms or less latency, wireless multi-gigabit data transfer speeds, and precise “object” location(s). Device to Device (D2D) communication, utilizing various combinations of adHoc networks like WANET / MANET / VANET topologies will use UWB Impulse Radar and similar concepts in connected devices to maximize network efficiency while minimizing “physical” collisions. V2X networks will be required for Autonomous Vehicles which pose risks, inherently associated, with the “automation” of heavy objects traveling at cruising speeds. Real Time Locating Systems have many strategies and configurations. UWB is just a piece of the pulsing, lifelike wireless Internet that surrounds us.
Modern communication networks need to increase available bandwidth to meet projected consumer "demand". This ranges from Augmented Reality, to remote medical care, vehicle to vehicle communication (V2V), and other types of Machine to Machine communications (M2M). The U.S. FCC has recently allocated additional bandwidth for vehicle communications. The need for bandwidth and spectrum efficiency is a primary focus for the FCC and major Telecommunication "Partners". The Internet of Things is growing exponentially. Various implementations of Impulse Radio communication create practical solutions to achieve wireless gigabit internet speeds, precise object identification, and location awareness.
Impulse Radio technology has useful radar applications. For example, UWB based radar - SIRE, developed by US Army Research Laboratories, identifies objects underground, behind foliage, and inside buildings. The advancements originating from this and similar radar technologies allows for high speed communication, “Real Time Locating Systems” for healthcare, "smart" homes, as well as, enabling vehicles and other machines to “self-orient” and avoid collisions in an automated environment.
US Patent 9164167B2 – Personal electronic device with a micro-impulse radar describes in detail how UWB signals can also perform invasive imaging and identification. “…An object (such as a person) in the probed region can selectively reflect, refract, absorb, and/or otherwise scatter the emitted pulses. A return signal including a reflected, refracted, absorbed, and/or otherwise scattered signal can be received by a receive antenna. Optionally, the receive antenna and transmit antenna can be combined into a single antenna. In a single antenna embodiment, a filter (not shown) can be used to separate the return signal from the emitted pulse… …The signal analyzer can be configured to determine the presence of a person in the region. For example, MIR data from the signal processor can include data… …characteristic of a human physiological process (e.g. heartbeat and/or breathing) … …The signal analyzer can be configured to determine a number of persons in the region. The signal analyzer can be configured to determine the size of a person and/or relative size of anatomical features of a person in the region. The signal analyzer can be configured to determine the presence of an animal in the region. The signal analyzer can be configured to determine movement and/or speed of movement of a person through the region. The signal analyzer can be configured to determine or infer the orientation of a person such as the direction a person is facing relative to the region. The signal analyzer can be configured to determine one or more physiological aspects of a person in the region…”
“…The signal analyzer can determine presence of a personal appliance such as a cell phone, PDA, etc. and/or presence of metalized objects such as credit cards, smart cards, access cards, etc. The signal analyzer can infer the gender and age of one or more persons based on returned MIR data. For example, male bodies can generally be characterized by higher mass density than female bodies, and thus can be characterized by somewhat greater reflectivity at a given range. Adult female bodies can exhibit relatively greater harmonic motion (“jiggle”) responsive to movements, and can thus be correlated to harmonic spectra characteristics. Older persons generally move differently than younger persons, allowing an age inference based on detected movement in the region...”
“…The signal analyzer can determine a demographic of one or more persons in the region…. …For example, MIR data can include movement corresponding to the beating heart of one or more persons in the region. The signal analyzer can filter the MIR data to remove information not corresponding to a range of heart rates, and determine one or more heart rates by comparing movement of the heart surface to the MIR signal rate… …Similarly, the signal analyzer can determine one or more respiration rates by measuring movement corresponding to the chest or diaphragm of one or more persons. The signal analyzer can determine movement, a direction of movement, and/or a rate of movement of one or more persons in the region.”
US Patent 9024814B2 - Tracking identities of persons using micro-impulse radar specifically discusses, “…a method for identifying an individual from a group of individuals includes accessing an identification library including a plurality of individual identities and their phenotypic identities; receiving at least one MIR signal including information associated with at least one human form… …and comparing the phenotypic profile to the plurality of phenotypic identities from the identification library to determine an associated individual identity… …the phenotypic identity can include data corresponding to one or more of a size of a person, a shape of a person, density of a person, detectable ornamentation associated with a person, equipment accompanying the person, equipment supporting the person, detectable clothing worn by a person, a heart size, a posture, a head-to-body size ratio, body movements, an in utero fetus, a prosthesis, a personal appliance, a heart rate, a heart arrhythmia, a respiration rate, a respiration irregularity, a diaphragm motion, a diaphragm spasm... ...In other words, the phenotypic identity can include a data corresponding to the detected physical attributes and/or physiological data. For example, a phenotypic identity can include structured data corresponding to “gender: male, carrying: cell phone, glasses, heart rate: 60-65, height: 6′-2”; or “gender: female, carrying: computer, fetus 2nd trimester, heart rate: 55-60, height: 5′-6″…”.
An additional description of identifiable characteristics included in US Patent 9024814B2 are, “…a physical attribute can include at least one of body size, body mass, height, body shape, posture, body permittivity, carried articles, and/or detectable body ornamentation. The attributes can include a characteristic movement such as a characteristic voluntary movement or a characteristic involuntary movement. The characteristic movement can include a reactive movement. A physiological attribute can include at least one of heart rate, an intracyclic heartbeat characteristic, breathing rate, a rate or magnitude of inhalation, a rate or magnitude of exhalation, a tremor of all or part of a body, an intracyclic breathing characteristic, or an intercyclic breathing characteristic…”
Commercial or consumer applications are exemplified as obtaining a “temporary” profile. “…For example, a person checking into a hotel room may select parameters such as room temperature or television volume that establish a set of preferences. According to embodiments, an environment or media controller can later adjust the temperature or television volume to match the preferences without ever having knowledge of the individual identity of the person. Other applications can benefit from knowledge of an individual identity corresponding to the temporary identity. For example, the person checking into the hotel room may have a preference for watching college football games. By correlating the temporary identity to an individual identity, this preference can be conveyed to a media controller, and the media controller can present a range of available televised college football games to the guest or select an appropriate game for presentation…”. In short, a consumer "convenience" such as a product or service.
According to US Patent 9024814B2, this is accomplished by, “…a transmitter configured to transmit electromagnetic pulses toward the region, a range delay gate configured to delay the pulses, and a receiver synchronized to the range delay gate and configured to receive electromagnetic energy scattered from the pulses and output signals, which can be analog signals… …the transmitter can transmit the voltage pulse or can further condition the pulse, such as by differentiating a leading and/or trailing edge to produce a short sub-nanosecond transmitted pulses. The voltage pulse is typically not modulated onto a carrier frequency. Rather, the voltage pulse transmission spectrum is the frequency domain transform of the emitted pulse. The MIR can probe a region by emitting a series of spaced voltage pulses. For example, the series of voltage pulses can be spaced between about 100 nanoseconds and 100 microseconds apart. Typically, the pulse generator emits the voltage pulses with non-uniform spacing such as random or pseudo-random spacing, although constant spacing can be used if interference or compliance is not a concern…”
This is particularly concerning, because in addition to uniquely identifying and tracking an individual, Nervous System Manipulation (1) is possible using similar hardware/software characteristics described for Micro-Impulse Radar use. More about this later, as Nervous System Manipulation (2) requires additional explanation. Future Wireless Systems for Human Bond Communications discusses using UWB / Impulse Radio, in addition variations of phased array transmissions for efficient network speeds, sensing, and precise location awareness . Huawei (made in China) is very interested in the deployment of Human Bond Communication technologies included in 5G infrastructure. 5G will rely heavily on wireless architecture, most of which, uses electromagnetic radiation to move information around the internet.
Micro-Impulse Radar also is capable of identifying emotional states in humans. US Patent 8884813B2 - Surveillance of stress conditions of persons using micro-impulse radar discusses using various database referencing techniques to perform a "threat assessment” of a single individual or multiple individuals based on physical and physiological measurements. Heart rate, respiration, as well as physical distress signals, like fidgeting or even decreased digestive activity can all be “sensed”, processed, and compared to a database. The database (example "Data Center") contains an individual’s specific biometric history, other individuals' biometric information within a local proximity, or an "averaging" of biometric information of individuals who historically have been in the immediate area. This is particularly useful in public areas like airports, stadiums, train stations, checkpoints, etc..
The ability to survey and identify objects is getting better, faster and cheaper to deploy. Physical and physiological classification of humans, animals, and other objects in the environment is now possible in high resolution. Additional information can be observed and extracted, particularly, when analyzing a heartbeat. Various forms of Remote Sensing will be considered a public safety “necessity” as more automation is introduced into the world around us alongside the exponential growth in IoT devices and technologies.
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