Tuesday Within the Octave of Corpus Christi: From The Liturgical Year by Dom Prosper Louis Paschal Guéranger, O.S.B., 1904. . White Semidouble. . Christum regem adoremus dominantem gentibus, qui se manducantibus dat spiritus pingudeninem. . Let us adore Christ, the King, Who ruleth the nations; Who giveth fatness of spirit to them that eat Him. . Wisdom prosecutes the fulfillment of the divine plan framed before all ages. His union, or, to use the scriptural expression, his marriage, with human nature, in the womb of his Virgin Mother, has shown his love; and Jesus, that Son of Man who never had any personality but the Word Himself, immolated on the Cross, in a daily renewed Sacrifice, offers an infinite glory to the Eternal Father. But the august Victim, who comes down upon earth at the word of the Priest, does not return to heaven amidst some sacred flame, like that which used to consume the ancient holocausts. Immoveable and passive as are the elements whose substance has been changed into His by the marvellous power of the sacrifice,—He, Jesus, remains at the Altar under the appearance of Bread and Wine, for such they seem to be to the eyes and the other senses:—this is the Blessed Sacrament, the outward sensible sign of a mysterious banquet. . “O Sacrament of Sacraments! O most divine and holy Sacrament! lifting up the veil of the symbolic mysteries which surround thee, show thyself to us in thy perfection, and fill our mental vision with thine incomparable and pure light!” Thus, in his inimitable style, speaks the interpreter of the divine hierarchies, the Eagle of Athens, when, having explained the holy ceremonies of the Sacrifice, he soars aloft in the consecration of the archetypes, or principles, of the sacred rites, which he has just been describing. Let us follow, as far as may be, the sublime philosophy of our Christian Plato, who has given a sort of consecration to the language and formulas of pagan wisdom, by making them the receptacles and teachers of Christian dogma; and, like St. Paul, has made every height of science obey and subserve the mysteries of Christ. . The Priest, then, has just pronounced the words of Consecration, and the tremendous Mysteries are there on the altar: he shows them, veiled under the sacramental species. The host, after being concealed for a few moments, is held up before the adoring multitude; it was one, and now he divides it into several portions: he presents to all the faithful the one same Chalice; he mystically multiplies and distributes unity; and thus completes the Sacrifice. For the simple and hidden Unity of the Word, by uniting, by espousing, to himself the whole nature of man, came forth from the bosom of his Father into this visible, this many-creatured world of the senses; and, conforming himself to this multiplicity, without, in any way, changing his own oneness, uniting our lowliness with his own dignity, uniting our life with his own, uniting us as his members to himself as our Head, he would have us all be one with himself: so, the divine Sacrament, which in its own essence, is one, and simple, and indivisible, lovingly multiplies itself, under the exterior symbol of the species; in order that, returning from the multiplicity of the receivers into the unity which is its own principle, it will bring into Unity them that received it in holy dispositions. The name of Eucharist is the most suitable; for Eucharist signifies thanksgiving; and this Sacrament holds within it Him who is the object of all praise, and all the heavenly gifts he has bestowed upon us. It is the admirable summary of all the divine operations which God has achieved for man: it is the stay of our life; it gives back to our souls the divine image, and that upon the model of an archetype which is eternal beauty; it leads us, by admirable ascensions, into a path which, naturally, we could never have entered; by it are repaired the ruins of the original fall; by it we cease to be poor; it takes our whole being, gives its whole self to us, and thereby makes us partakers of God himself and all his gifts. . “It is on this account,” continues St. Denis, “that what is common to all the Sacraments, is attributed, by excellence, to this one; and hence it is, by a special name, called Communion and Synaxis. For albeit every Sacrament be such as gathereth our lives, divided asunder as they are many ways, into that one state whereby we are joined to God, and by a godlike bringing together of things which stand apart, brings these our lives into communion and union with Him who is one; yet, to the reception of those sacred symbols, there is given consummation, by the divine and perfective gifts of this one Sacrament. For there is no function performed by the sacred minister, to which the most divine Eucharist does not succeed, bringing with it the completion of conjunction with the one God, and conferring on the receiver (of that previous Sacrament) the communion with God by the gift of the consummating Mysteries (of the Eucharist). So, then, if the other Sacraments, not giving what they do not possess, remain, so to say, incomplete, not able to achieve perfect union between us and the one God; if their aim is to prepare the receiver to become partaker of the more excellent Mysteries of God; it was with all reason and justice that the wisdom of the hierarchs gave it this name of Communion or Synaxis, which is grounded on the truth of what it contains.” . “O Sacrament of love!” cries out St. Augustine: “O sign of Unity! O bond of charity!” The unitive power of the Eucharist produces, as St. Denis so sublimely teaches, the union between God and his creature; but St. Augustine dwells on it as peacefully forming Christ’s mystical body; and so preparing it for the eternal sacrifice, and for the universal and perfect communion in heaven. This is the leading idea, which inspires the holy Bishop of Hippo with those magnificent passages, which we have already put, at least in part, before our readers. Though others of the Holy Fathers and Doctors are very fine when treating upon the Eucharist, yet we have kept to St. Augustine more closely than to the rest; and in so doing, we were but following the example set us by the Church herself, who finds her own teachings, regarding the Blessed Eucharist, so faithfully expressed by his words, that, up to this Tuesday, she has taken him, in the beautiful Homilies of her Matins during the Octave, as her exclusive preacher. . He was telling us, eight days back, and he was but giving us the echo of all tradition, that the Holy Eucharist is the center and bond of the great Catholic communion, in this land of exile. On the very Feast itself of Corpus Christi, he completes his teaching, when commenting the passage for the day’s Gospel; the Church took his commentary, making it the official explanation of her Gospel. The holy Doctor then told us that the words of our Savior, when announcing his intention to institute the Mystery of love, included not only the earth, but heaven itself; they signified the whole body of Christ’s Church. I am the living bread which came down from heaven. If any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever; and the bread that I will give, is my flesh for the life of the world; for my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. This meat, this drink, which he promises to give us, is, truly and primarily, his own veritable Flesh, and the very Blood which flows in his veins; it is the very Victim slain on the Cross: but as a consequence of this, it is also the Church, which is established upon his own, his own real substance, and is immolated with him, as one same victim with himself, in one and the same Sacrifice: “It is the holy Church,” says St. Augustine, “the Church of all Christ’s members, the predestined and the called, and the justified, and the glorified … Seeing that men desire this, by the food and drink they take, that they may suffer neither hunger nor thirst,”this result is not gained by any other than this food and drink, which makes them immortal and incorruptible who take it,”that is, the very fellowship of the Saints, where there is peace, and full and perfect unity.” It is a banquet of ineffable sweetness and plenty, wherein each of the elect is a partaker of the whole body, and gives it, by the very fact of his own participation, increase and completeness. . This was the eternal Passover spoken of by our Redeemer, when he put an end to the figurative one by the reality, veiled though it was, of the Sacrament. I say unto you, that, from this time forward, I will not eat it again, till it be fulfilled (that is, till it be completed) in the kingdom of God; I will not drink from henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I shall drink it with you, new (as it then will be) in the Kingdom of my Father. Oh! that day, that endless day, that day of light and vision whereof David sang! On that day, throwing aside all the veils that are now shrouding him from our eyes, and himself the first to be inebriated with love in that divine banquet, eternal Wisdom, with an embrace uniting both Head and members together, will give man to drink of the torrent of his own divine pleasures, and of that fount of life which himself has in the bosom of the Father. Christ, our Head, has long since ascended beyond the clouds; the Church, flowing with delights, and leaning upon her Beloved, is continually going up after him from this desert land; one or another of his members, our brethren, is every moment going in, to complete the number of guests at the heavenly and eternal and new Passover; and, as each one goes in, our Jesus says: This now is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; for all these are then united to him as the bride to her Spouse, for they are but one body. It is the Eucharist which has produced this marvelous capability of perfect union between the members and their divine Head. This union will not be manifested till the day of glory: but it is here below, under the shade and cloud of faith, that the Eucharist is thus transforming the elect into Christ, that is, into eternal union with him, so as to make one Body. . He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, abideth in me, and I in him. “This, then, it is,” says St. Augustine, “to eat that meat, and drink that drink:—to abide in Christ and have him abiding in one’s self.” “The sign that a man has eaten and drunk (of this Sacrament) is the abiding in and the being abided in, the dwelling in and the being dwelt in.” Yes, this is the very nature of the Eucharistic banquet, this banquet of mutual abiding; a banquet at which man cannot worthily eat of the Bread of Life without his becoming, and that gradually more and more, the bread of Christ, that one bread spoken of by the Apostle, which is kneaded up by the Church in the holy Mysteries, that it may become one with the sacred Flesh of Christ, as St. John Chrysostom so forcibly expresses it, and give, as St. Augustine says, growth and strength in unity to the mystical body of Christ. “I am the wheat of Christ,” said the holy martyr, Ignatius of Antioch; “may I be ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found to be the pure bread of Christ, … to be offered in sacrifice to God.” This same thought of the great martyr of the early ages was taken up, and enlarged upon, in the 8th Century, by the monk St. Beatus and his disciple Heterius: they are sending to Elipandus, Archbishop of Toledo, their reply to the Nestorians of Spain; and in the first portion of it [Adversus Elipandus, lib. i. 72], they thus speak of the treatment the Faithful receive from these Heretics: “They are our persecutors: but by persecuting us, they are but shaking the wheat out of the straw; when they torture us, they are but separating the dregs from the wine. We ought to go down on our knees, and pray for them that thus make us become the food of God. As wine, when it has come forth from the press, is put into the Chalice, so is it with you: after those fastings, after those fatigues, and humiliations, and crushings, you now are come into the Lord’s cup, in Christ’s name. You are bread upon his table; you are wine in his goblet. We are all one and the same together; for there is but the one Chalice, in which we all are, because there is but the one Passion and Death of Christ, whereby we have all been redeemed. We all drink together, though we do not live together. A heretic seeks to separate; this is his effort, to tear asunder, not to piece; to break, not to join. He separates the Word from the Flesh. He separates the Head from the body, by saying that the Head is by itself, and the body by itself. Unfortunate man! he knows not, how Christ is the Head of the Church; and that the Church is conjoined to that Head; and that that is the whole Christ, that is Head and body. Heretics are not food for the Lord; for it was not of them, that he said: My meat is, to do the will of Him that sent me, that I may perfect his work; and that work consists in his making one bread out of many grains, that is, out of many souls, the making one soul, one in one charity, one faith, and one hope. For if the souls which he makes one by one faith were not the food of God, he would not have said of the countries white and ready for the harvest, but which at that time were not visible to the disciples: I have meat to eat, which ye know not!” . He hungered after this food, and oh! with what hunger! He longed, he thirsted, for that banquet of his Last Supper, wherein He, the omnipotent guest, gives himself as food to man, and would make the whole of humanity his own food. “As the fire devours the wood that is thrown into the furnace, so our Redeemer eats and assimilates to himself, at this sacred table, the whole body of holy Church; he makes it his own, and thus it gains strength and grows.” So spoke William of Paris, at the beginning of the 13th Century; and he was but repeating what St. Leo the Great and St Augustine had taught, ages before, saying, “The participating of the Body and Blood of Christ has this as its chief work,”to change us into Him,” and in such wise, as that being made his body, and having become his members, we may be what we receive: (ut in id quod sumimus transeamus, ut simus quod accipimus.”) . Eternal Wisdom had all the children of men in view, when he assumed human flesh. If the unity, which marks all the works of God, seemed to require that he should unite himself to one only in the same hypostasis or Person,”that same law of unity was, so to say, a promoter of his loving design to make this Man-God the Head of a mystical body in which each of the elect was to be united to Christ. The economy of the Incarnation is described to us by the holy Fathers of the Church in this way,—that the great mystery is not quite completed, until, by the Eucharist, the Head joins to himself his members, and is united to the body, which he is to animate and govern. “It is on this account,” says Paschasius Radbert, “that he so rejoiced at the Supper, and gives thanks to God, his Father, for that his desires are, at last, fulfilled. He desired, before he suffered, to eat the true Passover; in order that, when the hour came for him to deliver himself up as the price of our ransom, we might already be in him as one body. And thus, we had to be crucified, and buried, and rise again, together with him.” . The union between the Head and the members produced by the Eucharist is so close that, taking the words of our Savior, who compares it to the union which exists between the Father and Himself, St. Hilary and St. Cyril of Alexandria adduce it as an argument, the one to defend the consubstantiality of the Word, against the Arians; and the other to prove against the Nestorians, the union, real and physical, and not merely one of influence or affection, which unites the Word and human nature in the Incarnation. One, by nature, with his Father, one, in Christ, with the flesh he assumed, Eternal Wisdom makes us, through that flesh, one with himself, in the Father. . But already, by anticipation, the Holy Ghost, that Bond eternal, had brought the elect into unity. He the divine indweller of the children of God, He the sanctifying, the indivisible Spirit, assembles the sons of Adam in the unity of his own spirit of grace. “As the power of Christ’s flesh makes one body of all nations,” says St. Cyril, “so the Holy Spirit makes all spirits one; and yet, hereby, neither spirits nor bodies are confounded; as the Apostle said: One body, and one spirit, one God and Father of all, who is above all, and in us all.” Still, in the marvellous union of creatures brought about, to the glory of the Father, by the Spirit of Father and Son,—it is to the Son, as Incarnate Word, that is, as eternal Wisdom, who is taken with love for the children of men,—it is to Him that belongs this immense work of union, which so gloriously terminates in, which so stupendously leads up to, the divine espousals with human nature. . So it is, too, with ourselves; we are just at the close of this Mystery of love, which we have been contemplating, though too briefly, in the most dear company of divine Wisdom; we are to spend the two days, still remaining of our Octave, in considerations which are less exclusively on the dogma of the Blessed Eucharist; and we now find ourselves returning to the thought which was our starting point. God is love, as we were then saying; and love demands union; and union must make the united alike. Now this resemblance between God and man could not be realized, save by man’s being raised to what St. Peter calls a participation of the divine nature; now this is the special work of the Holy Ghost; and he effects it by grace, which is the result of his own personal indwelling in the soul he has sanctified; like the unction of purest oil, he penetrates the inmost recesses, and the very substance, of that happy soul. It was thus he acted in Christ; he inundated, with his divine plenitude, the human nature assumed by the Word, in the womb of the Virgin Mother, when Eternal Wisdom united himself with that nature which, though inferior and created, was, from that moment, holy and perfect in the Holy Spirit. He, the Spirit, acts proportionately, in the same way with the Church; she is the holy City, and he prepares her for the feast of the nuptials of the Lamb; she is the Bride of Christ, and he gives her to be clothed with robes all glittering and white, which are the virtues of the Saints. When he has made her one by baptism, and strengthened her in holiness by the second of the Sacraments, he has but to lead her to her Spouse, saying with her that come of the Sacred Mysteries, which are to complete his work, and unite together the Bride and the Spouse. Thus the children of the Bride, being made one with Christ, one body with him, are made partakers of her own nuptials with eternal Wisdom. If, then, we have all been baptized in the one only Spirit, it was, as the Apostle teaches us, that we might all form that one body, in which Jews and Gentiles, bondsmen and free, are not individuals set off against each other by their personal differences,—they are members of Christ, and have all been made to drink in the one same holy Spirit, the divine Word, whose sacred Flesh is given to us in the mystery of salvation. St. Peter, in his first Epistle, speaks of our taking the holy Eucharist as though it were not only food, but milk for babes. He says, speaking to the early Christians, and, through them, to us also: As new-born babes, desire ye the rational milk, he means our Lord Jesus Christ, as is evident from the context. Clement of Alexandria thus quotes the passage: As new-born babes, desire ye the word! Yes, it is the Word, the Milk of those who are converted, and become little children, who are born again of the Holy Ghost; it prepares them for the solid food of the eternal feast, that is, for the Word unveiled. It is a delicious food, sweet as grace, strengthening as life, pure as is the light. It is that heavenly dew which fell from the bosom of the Father into the womb of the Virgin Mother; and this same, the Word Incarnate, gives himself to the Church, for she too is Virgin and Mother. Pure as a virgin, and affectionate as a mother, she invites her children to come, and she feeds them on this rational milk, this Word, this most beautiful one among the sons of men; she gives her little ones the body of Christ, and strengthens them with the Word of the Father. Oh! let us run to this blessed Mother of ours, and drink of that Word, who turns all our evils away from us, making us forget, by correcting them. The mother’s breast is everything to her child,—life, joy, its whole world. With what eagerness it throws itself on its treasure, as St. John Chrysostom was saying in the Office of yesterday; with what ardor it kisses the fount of all its blessings! And yet, a mother’s milk is but an image of the One I am speaking of. That other ceases, when the first few months are gone; but the one I partake of is an exhaustless spring; it forms me into the perfect man, making me reach the age of the fulness of Christ. . All these sublime teachings were like household words to the early Christians; and we cannot be surprised, therefore, that one of the favorite symbols of the holy Eucharist was milk. St. Perpetua relates that, on the evening before she and her companions were to suffer martyrdom, Pastor put a delicious milk into her mouth: the details she gives of that touching scene show us that she is speaking of the Blessed Sacrament. Among the paintings in the Catacombs, we not unfrequently find this emblem, beautifully eloquent in its varied accompaniments. Sometimes, it is a vase of milk, held in Pastor’s hand or lying by his side; sometimes it is that same vase resting on a hillock, and the sheep are respectfully keeping guard over it; sometimes it is the Lamb of God, the Pastor of pastors, who is holding it hanging on his shepherd’s crook; but all this means and conveys the same mystery. In one of these paintings, however, the teaching is almost palpable: the precious vase of Milk is placed on the back of the Lamb, who is holding the palm branch of his triumph over death, though it cost him his Blood; the vase is thus incorporated, so to say, with him, and has a nimbus round it, as holding within it the divine Word, the food of the Angels, and yet, by the workings of love, adapted to suit our human weakness. as St. Augustine so admirably explains this doctrine, “Man does not live on one food, and Angel on another: truth, divine Wisdom, is the one food of every intelligence. The Angels, the Powers, the heavenly spirits, feed on it; they eat of it; they grow upon it, and yet the mysterious food lessens not. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God: take it, if you can; eat it; it is food. Perhaps you will say to me: ‘Oh! yes, it is verily food; but I—I am a babe; what I must have is milk; else I cannot reach that Word you tell me of.’ Well! since it is milk you require, and yet there is no other food for you save this of heaven (the Word), he will pass through the flesh, that he may thus be brought within reach of your lips, for food does not become milk, except by its passing through flesh. It is thus a mother does. What the mother eats is what her child drinks; but the little one not being, as yet, strong enough to take the bread as it is, the mother eats it, and then gives it to her child under a form that very sweetly suits the babe. He does not receive the food such as it lay upon the table, but after it has passed through the flesh, and so made suitable to the child. Therefore was the Word made Flesh, and dwelt among us; and man hath eaten, thus the bread of Angels. Eternal Wisdom came down even to us, by the Flesh and Blood of Him that was our Saviour; he came as milk, which was full of all blessing to us.” Oh! truly, the Bride may well say to the Spouse: Thy breasts are better than wine. He, beautiful Wisdom, has carried out his loving design. From the first outset, right up to the attainment of his purpose, there have been numberless obstacles; but he has mastered them all, and with a power to which one thing alone can be compared,—his matchless sweetness. . The Antiphonary of the celebrated monastery of Benchor, in Ireland, published by Muratori, and which was drawn up not later than the 7th Century, gives us the following Hymn, which is, at once, dignified and simple: . . Hymn . Quando communicarent Sacerdotes Sancti, venite, Christi corpus sumite, Sanctum bibentes Quo redempti sanguinem. . Come, ye just, take Christ’s Body, and drink the sacred Blood, whereby ye were redeemed. . Salvati Christi Corpore et sanguine, A quo refecti Laudes dicamus Deo. . By Christ’s Body and Blood we were saved; by the same being fed, let us sing our praises to God. . Dator salutis, Christus Filius Deo Mundum servavit Per crucem et sanguinem. . Christ, the Son, the giver of salvation, saved the world to God his Father, by his Cross and Blood. . Pro universis Immolatus Dominus, Ipse sacerdos . This Lord, who was slain for all, was himself both Priest and Victim. Lege præceptum . Immolari hostias, Qua adumbrantur Divina mysteria. . It was commanded in the Law, that victims should be slain; hereby were foreshadowed our divine Mysteries. . Lucis indultor Et Salvator omnium Præclarum sanctis Largitus est gratiam. . He that gives the light, and is the Savior of all men, has given to the just a splendid favor. . Accedant omnes Pura mente creduli, Sumant æternam Salutis custodiam. . Let all the Faith approach with pure minds, and receive the eternal pledge of salvation. . Sanctorum custos Rector quoque Dominus, Vitam perennem Largitur credentibus. . The Lord, who is keeper and ruler of the saints, grants life everlasting to them that believe. . Cœlestem panem Dat esurientibus, De fonte vivo Præbet sitientibus. . To the hungry, he gives bread from heaven; to the thirsty, he gives a drink from the living fount. . Alpha et Omega Ipse Christus Dominus, Venit venturus Judicare homines. . He, Christ our Lord, Alpha and Omega, he is coming, who is to come to judge mankind. . Our readers, after this charmingly simple appeal, which was so long heard in Erin, will be interested, too, by the following lyric Antiphon, which, formerly, was used in the Church of Gaul. It was sung at the moment of Communion, on days of great solemnity, as an invitation calling the Faithful to a participation in the Immortal Mystery. Venite, populi, ad sacrum et immortale mysterium, et libamen agendum. . Come, O ye people! receive the sacred and immortal mystery, and the libation prepared for you. Cum timore et fide accedamus manibus mundis, pœnitentiæ munus communicemus, quoniam propter nos Agnus Dei Patris sacraficium propositum est. . Let us approach with fear and faith, holding out clean hands; let us take, in communion, the price of our repentance; for it was for our sakes that the Lamb was offered as a sacrifice to God the Father. Ipsum solum adoremus, ipsum glorificemus: cum Angelis clamantes: Alleluia. Him alone let us adore, him let us glorify: and, with the Angels, sing: Alleluia!

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Monday Within the Octave of Corpus Christi: From The Liturgical Year by Dom Prosper Louis Paschal Guéranger, O.S.B., 1904. . White Semidouble. . Christum regem adoremus dominantem gentibus, qui se manducantibus dat spiritus pingudeninem. . Let us adore Christ, the King, Who ruleth the nations; Who giveth fatness of spirit to them that eat Him. . The Lord hath sworn, and He will not repent Him of His oath: He hath sworn: “Thou art a Priest for ever, according to the order of Melchisedech!” Thus did the sons of Levi sing, to the expected Messias, in one of the loveliest of their Psalms. This noble and privileged family, this corona fratrum, standing, in all its glory, around the altar, whence there daily ascended the smoke of the victims burned on it,—this community of brethren celebrated, on the sacred harp, the Priesthood of the good things to come, and announced their own being set aside. Shadow and figure as it was, their own priesthood was to disappear, when the brightness of the divine realities of Calvary came. They were indebted to the infidelity of the nations, for their being called to perpetuate the worship of the true God, in His one single Temple; but this precarious honor would cease when the reconciliation of the world took place. Being Son of Juda, through David, the High Priest Christ receives nought of Aaron. When the inspired Psalmist sings a hymn in honour of our Jesus’ Priesthood, he goes back, in thought, to the ages beyond Moses; he passes the time of the twelve Patriarchs and their father Israel; and there, in the distant past, he meets with the type of a Priesthood, which is to have no limits, either of place or time: it is Melchisedech. Melchisedech receives, through Abraham, the homage of Abraham’s son, Levi; the priest of the uncircumcised nations gives a blessing to the venerable holder of the promise; and this mighty blessing, which is extended to the patriarch’s entire race, derives its efficacy from a mysterious sacrifice:—the peaceful offering of bread and wine to the Most High. . The priesthood of the King of justice and peace not only precedes that of Aaron as to time, but it is also to outlive it. And observe, it is at the very time when God was making a covenant with one single race, and thereby seemed to be turning away from all other nations, and was establishing the priestly order to their exclusion,—it is precisely then that the King-Priest of Salem, who has neither beginning of days nor end of life suddenly comes before us as the imposing image of our Eternal Priest, Who offers the divine Memorial, which is to perpetuate the great Sacrifice on the earth, and forever take the place of the bloody sacrifices of the Mosaic dispensation. . The Sacrifice of the Cross lasts all ages of time and fills eternity. And yet, as to time, it was the offering of one single day; and as to place, it was made but on one spot. It matters not: in every place, in every age, man must have the sacrifice ceaselessly offered up in his presence; he must have its offering renewed daily in his midst. As we have already seen, sacrifice is the center of the whole of religion; and man cannot dispense with religion, for it unites him to God as the sovereign Lord, and constitutes the primary bond of social life. As, then, to satisfy the imperious necessity, which showed itself from the very beginning of the world, divine Wisdom appointed those figurative offerings, which foretold the one great Sacrifice, and from which they derived what merit soever they possessed; so, in like manner, once the oblation of the great Victim made, it is again to supply the demands of mankind, and provide the world with a permanent Sacrifice; it is to be a Memorial, and not a Figure; it destroys not the unity of the Sacrifice of the Cross; and it applies the fruits of that one Sacrifice to each member of each future generation. . We will not here describe the Lord’s Supper, and the institution of that new Priesthood, which is as far above its predecessor as the promises it holds are more glorious, and the covenant, of which it forms the basis is more divine. We have had all the details of that marvellous history related to us on Maundy Thursday. It was on that day,—that day expected from all eternity; it was at that hour (cum facta esset Hora), that Hour so long put off, that divine Wisdom sat down to the supper and banquet of the New Covenant; He sat down, having with him the Twelve Apostles, who represented mankind. Putting an end to figures by a final immolation of the Paschal Lamb, Jesus exclaimed: With desire (that is, with immense desire), I have desired to eat this Pasch with you! The Man-God thus eased His Sacred Heart, which had so long waited for this Hour; He had so loved it! and it is now come! Then, forestalling the Jews, He immolates his victim,—the divine Lamb, signified by Abel, foretold by Isaias, shown by John the Precursor; and, by a miraculous anticipation, there is already in the holy chalice the Blood which, in a few hours hence, is to be flowing on Calvary; bread now changed into his Body, which has become the ransom of the world: Take, says this Jesus, take ye and eat: this is My Body, which shall be delivered for you! Take and drink this Chalice, which is the new testament in My Blood! This do ye for the commemoration of Me: that is, “As I am now anticipating, for your sakes, the death I am to suffer on the morrow, so you, when I have left this world, do this same for the commemoration of Me.” . The covenant, the alliance, is now made. The New Testament is declared, and like its predecessor, is sealed by Blood. If as yet it be of no force, save in prevision of the Testator’s real death, the reason is because this Jesus, Who is the Victim of the divine vengeance for the salvation of the whole world, has made a solemn covenant with His eternal Father, that this universal redemption is not to be effected but by the morrow’s cruel work. He has made Himself the Head of guilty mankind; He has made Himself responsible to God for the crimes of His own race; for the destruction of sin, therefore, He willingly submits to the stern laws of expiation, and by the torments He undergoes, reveals to the world how immense are the claims of eternal justice. Notwithstanding all this, the earth, from that very Thursday night, is in possession of the Chalice which is to announce the Saviour’s death until He come, by communicating to each member of the human family Christ’s real and true Blood, shed for our sins. And surely it was most fitting that our adorable High Priest Himself, and without all that display of outward violence,—which, a few hours later, is to disconcert the whole Apostolic college,—should offer Himself, with His own hands, as a true sacrifice to His Father; He would thus evince how spontaneous was His death, and do away with our ever having such a thought as that the treachery, or violence, or crime, of a handful of men, could be the origin and cause of the whole world’s salvation. . It is on this account that, lifting up his eyes to His Father (et elevatis oculis in cœlum ad te Deum Patrem suum omnipotentem), and giving thanks, He says, and in the present (as the Greek text gives the words): This is My Body, Which is given for you; this is My Blood, Which is shed for you. These words,—which He bequeaths, and with all their efficacy of power, to the representatives of His Priesthood,—really produce what they express. They not only change the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ; but as a mystical sword, they truly separate under the twofold species, and as far as their own power is concerned, they offer separately to the Father, the Body and Blood of our Lord, which are, indeed, united, but they are so by the omnipotent will of the infinite Majesty of God, Who was abundantly and eternally satisfied by the offering made on Calvary. As often, then, as the words of Consecration, which may be likened to those which drew the world out of nothing, are pronounced over wheaten bread and wine of the grape, by the mouth of a Priest,—no matter how long may be the time, or how distant the place, from the Sacrifice offered on Calvary,—that same moment, the august Victim, our Jesus, is then and there really present. It was one and the same Victim both at the Last Supper, and on the Cross, and It continues the same in the oblation made to the Father, now and to the end of time, and in all places, by the One High Priest, Christ our Lord, Who borrows and makes them His own, the hands and voice of the Priests of His Church, who have been chosen and consecrated, in the Holy Ghost, for this dread Ministry. Oh! how great will not these men be, who have been taken from among the rest of men, by the imposition of hands! New Christs, that is, new anointed Priests, identified, by their ministry, with the Son of Mary, they are the privileged members of divine Wisdom; they are closely united, by love, with the power which He Himself has; they are the companions of this Jesus in the doing that grand work which He, Wisdom, is ever doing throughout all ages: that is, the immolation of the great Victim, and the mingling of the Chalice, wherein our humanity, blended with its Head in the unity of the one same Sacrifice, derives also love for both its God and its fellow members, and is made to be partaker of the divine nature, as St. Peter words the mystery of union. . Praise, then, and glory be to our Jesus, the sovereign High Priest, for these noble sons of the human race! they are a marvel to heaven, and the pride of our earth! Surrounded by them, as is the palm tree with its victory-speaking palms, or the cedar, with its incorruptible branches, this divine Pontiff of ours comes forward like the olive tree budding forth its young plants, in which He puts, and with such an overflowingness, dignity, power, and holiness. And as the cypress tree that rears itself on high, hides its vigorous trunk beneath the forest of its ever-green branches,—so hiding His own direct action, and, as it were, retreating behind the countless Priests on earth, who derive all their power and unction from Him, our true High Priest draws them all to unity with His own adorable Self. On that night ever blessed, that night of the divine Supper, when, as He said, the hour had come for the Father and Son to glorify One the Other; it was just as He was on the point of ascending the blood-stained steps of the altar of the Cross, where was to be consummated the perfection of glory; yes, it was then, and thus early, that He manifested the power of His own divine Priesthood. Under the likeness and name of Simon, Son of Onias, who did such great things for the Temple, and saved his people from destruction; we have our Jesus, Whose praises are inspired and celebrated by the Holy Spirit, in that last of the Books descriptive of eternal Wisdom,—Ecclesiasticus. It is into the as yet feeble hands of His Apostles, whom He vouchsafes to call His friends, and His Brethren, that our Lord entrusts the oblation, which was to immortalize, and so, in a manner, extend His sacrifice to the King of Ages. His divine hands are stretched out, offering, as a libation, the blood of the grape: He pours it forth at the very foot of the altar, which is already being put up; and the fragrance of that offering makes its way to the Most High Prince. Our High Priest saw into the future; He heard the songs of triumph which would hymn the praises of the divine Memorial; He heard the sacred Psalmody, which would fill the great House, the Church, with ceaseless and sweet harmony, around the Tabernacle of His Presence; He saw millions prostrate in the adoration of Him, the Lord their God, and paying to the Almighty their now perfect homage. Then did He rise from the table of the Supper; He went out in His strength and His love, that He might, for a whole long day, stretch forth His hands in presence of the crowd of unbelieving and hostile children of Israel; He renewed his oblation, consummated His Sacrifice by His Blood, for, by the Cross, He wished to show the power of God. . “The evening Sacrifice, which was the Passion of Christ,” says St. Augustine, “became, in His Resurrection, the oblation of the morning.” It was a Sacrifice whose mysterious transformation was signified under the Law by the solemnly presenting to the Lord of a sheaf of the first-fruits of the wheat harvest; the presentation was to be made on the third day following the slaying of the Paschal Lamb. But the time for offering the very bread itself, the true wheat and food of souls, was not as yet come; and the law subjoined as follows: Ye shall count, therefore, from the morrow after the Sabbath, wherein ye offered the sheaf of the first-fruits, seven full weeks, even unto the morrow after the seventh week be expired, that is to say, fifty days: and then ye shall offer a new Sacrifice unto the Lord:—two loaves of flour,—the first-fruits of the Lord. Fifty days were to transpire, in the New Covenant, before the divine Agent came, Who alone could transform these gifts, this Bread and Wine. Pentecost, the glorious Pentecost, arose at last; and the creating Spirit came with a mighty wind. The Flesh of the Word, and the divine Blood, which He formed at the very onset, and are still in His keeping, awaited for their being reproduced in the sacred Mysteries, the incommunicable operation of Him Whose glorious masterpiece they are. “It was by Him Who is eternal Fire, that is, by the Spirit,” says the Abbot Rupert, “that Mary conceived; it was by Him that Jesus offered Himself, a living Victim, to the living God; and it is by the same Fire that He now burns on our altars, for it is by the operation of the Holy Ghost that the Bread is changed into His Body.” So, too, St. Denis the Areopagite, the great disciple of the Apostle St. Paul, teaches us that our Jesus, the supreme Hierarch, when He called His disciples to share in His sovereign priesthood,—although, as God, He was the author of all consecration, yet did He leave the consummation of their priesthood to the Holy Ghost; and He bade His Apostles not to depart from Jerusalem, but there wait for the promise of the Father, that is, for their being baptized with the Holy Ghost a few days later on. . “The Priest,” says St. John Chrysostom, “comes forth, carrying, not fire, as under the Law, but the Holy Ghost.” “It is a man who appears before us, but it is God Who works.” How shall this be done, said Mary to the Angel, for I know not man. Gabriel answers her: The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee. “And thou now askest me,” says St. John Damascene to an inquirer, “’How do the bread and wine and water become the Body and Blood of Christ?’ I answer thee: The Holy Ghost overshadows the Church, and achieves this Mystery, which is beyond all word and all imagination.” . Therefore it is that, as St. Fulgentius observes, “the Church cannot have any better reason for praying the coming of the Holy Ghost, than for the consecration of the Sacrifice, wherein, as under the shadow of the Spirit in the Virgin’s womb, the Wisdom of the Father united himself with the Man chosen by Him for the divine espousal, so the Church herself is united, by the Holy Ghost, to Christ, as a bride is to her spouse, or the body to its head.” It is on account of all this that the hour of Tierce (our hour of nine o’clock), the hour wherein the divine Paraclete came into this world, is the one set apart, by the Church, on each of her Festivals, for the solemn celebration of the great Sacrifice, over which this Blessed Spirit presides in the omnipotence of his operation. . O holy hour of Tierce! O sacred Nine o’Clock, as men call that third hour! it is then that the Bride, the Church of Christ, feels an alleviation of her exile; for though still on earth, she gives to her God an homage that is worthy of him, and receives back from him every grace wherewith to bless her dear children. In this sense, the Mass is her fortune, her dower; it belongs to her to regulate its celebration, to prescribe the formulas and the ceremonies, and to receive its fruits. The Priest is her minister: she prays; he immolates the Victim, and gives her prayer an infinite power. The indelible character of the Priesthood, stamped by God himself, on the Priest’s soul, makes him the exclusive depositary of the marvellous, the divine, power, and gives to the Sacrifice, offered by his hands, a validity which no human power can control; but he may not, licitly and lawfully, make the oblation, save in and with the Church. This mutual dependence, this union which confounds not, of the Priest and the Church in the Sacred Mysteries, was deeply impressed on the minds of the early Christians. In the cemetery of Saint Callixtus,—that central point of the Roman cemeteries, and the one set apart for the burial of the Bishops of the Mother Church during the entire 3rd Century,—there is a whole series of paintings going back as far as the beginning of the Catacomb itself. These were a symbolic teaching of the initiated how the dogma of the Eucharist was instituted by our Lord, as basis of the religion, whereof the Popes, who were buried there in the papal crypt, had been the faithful guardians. The repast of the seven disciples, for whom, during their mysterious fishing, Jesus himself has been preparing bread and a fish roasted on hot coals, is painted in one of the rooms, on the center of the wall facing the entrance door. On either side of this central subject, there are two other smaller ones: one is the sacrifice of Abraham, with its well known meaning; the other represents a non-historic scene, which, however, evidently forms a counterpart with the one on the other side; it speaks of the Sacrifice of the Christian Church; and symbolism so thoroughly hides the secret of the Mysteries from the profane, that we may expect the symbolism to be deep in proportion. On a table lies a loaf, whose meaning is made plain enough by the fish, the eucharistic icthus, being placed near it. On the spectator’s right hand is an aged female; she is standing, with her arms stretched out as an Orante, and is offering up her prayer to heaven; on the left is the figure of a young man; he wears a simple pallium, which was the usual garb of the Christian cleric in the 2nd Century; with an air of authority, he is holding his open hands over the table and its gifts. We know the meaning of all this; it is the Church, who is united, in the consecration, with the Priest, her minister and her son. With what fidelity does not this queen, who is in mourning for her Spouse, carry out the Testament which left her in the Sacrifice, the eternal and undying remembrance of his Death,—and he gave her that Testament at his Last Supper! While he gives his whole Self to her in the mystery of love, she is forcibly reminded, by the state of immolation in which she sees Him, that she is not to be taken up so much with the joy this sweet presence of His causes her, as with the duty of completing and continuing His work, by immolating herself together with Him. Under the Altar, where she and her Jesus meet, she, the valiant woman, has laid the relics of her Martyrs, for she is aware that the Passion of her Lord demands, from her children, who are His members, a something which will fill up what is wanting of His sufferings. She was produced from His open Side, when on His Cross, and she was espoused to Him in Death; that first embrace, which, from her very birth, put her Spouse’s Bleeding Body into her arms, has communicated to the soul of this second Eve the same inebriation of devotedness and love, which sent the heavenly Adam into his deep sleep on Calvary. . To this Church, then, to this Mother of the living, the immense human family runs with all its manifold miseries and countless wants. She makes good use of the treasure confided to her; that treasure is the Mass, and it supplies every necessity; and, by that same, she is enabled to fulfill all her duties, both as Bride and Mother. Each day identifying herself, more and more, with the universal Victim, Who imparts to her sacrifice His own infinite worth, the Church adores God’s sovereign Majesty, gives Him thanks for His favors, sues for the pardon of the past and present sins of her children, and asks for them the bestowal of blessings temporal and eternal. The precious Blood of her Jesus flows from her Altar upon the suffering souls in Purgatory, assuages their fire of expiation, or leads them to the place of refreshment, light, and peace. So great is the power of the Sacrifice offered in the Church that, of itself, and (as far as the principal effect is concerned) independently of the merits of the Priest or the people present, it fulfils those four ends, whose realization includes the sum total of religion,—that, is Adoration, Thanksgiving, Propitiation, and Impetration;—yes independently of the merits of the human Priest,—for it is the Victim, which gives this Sacrifice its worth; and the Victim on our Altars is the Same that was on Calvary; it is a Victim equal to the Father, Who offers Himself, as He did on the cross, for these same ends, and in one same Oblation. The Creator of space and time is not bound to observe their laws, and He has proved His divine independence in this mystery. “Just as though offered in many places, it is one and the same Body, and not several bodies,” says St. John Chrysostom, “so is it with the unity of the Sacrifice, though offered in different ages.” Between the Altar and the Cross, there is but the difference of the manner of the offering. Bloody on the Cross, unbloody on the Altar, the offering is one, notwithstanding this diversity of mode. The immolation of the august Victim on the Cross was a visible one, for it was amidst all the cruel horrors which slew Him; but the violence of the executioners concealed the Sacrifice offered to God, by the Incarnate Word, in the spontaneity of His generous love. At our Altar, the immolation is not visible; but the religious worship of the Sacrifice is as patent as the noon-day brightness, and as splendid in its glorious ritual. Upon the earth, which on that terrible Friday, had drunk the stream of its shedding, the precious Blood left the malediction of deicide; but the chalice of salvation held by the Church’s hand sheds benediction throughout our planet. . O glorious condition of this Earth of ours, from whose surface, the Lamb that is slain, Who is now receiving, on the Throne of God, the homage due to His triumph, is presenting, each day, in His state of infinite lowliness as Man, total satisfaction to His Father for the sins of the world, and a glory adequate to the perfections of the divine Majesty! The Angels are in admiration as they look down upon this our globe, mere speck as it is amidst the bright heavenly spheres, and yet so loved, from the very onset, by eternal Wisdom; they surround, trembling the while, this Altar on earth, so closely resembling, so one with theirs in heaven, that on the two, the one same High Priest pays homage to the one same God in the one same infinite Offering. Hell from its deepest depths trembles at it; and raging, as it does, against God and vowing vengeance against man, there is no object so hateful to it as this Sacrifice. What untiring efforts has not Satan been making, what artful designs has he not planned, in order to make this much detested Sacrifice cease! And alas! there has been, even in the very heart of Christendom, some partial success to those efforts and designs,—there has been the protestant heresy, which has destroyed thousands of our Altars, especially in our own dear fatherland,—and there is still the spirit of Revolution which is spreading as our modern times grow older, and whose avowed aim is to shut up our Churches, and do away with the Priests who offer sacrifice! . So it is: and therefore, our world, which heretofore used to be set right again after the storms that swept its surface, now complains that the impending ruin is a universal one, and one wherein there is no strength, save in the very chastisements sent by God. It vainly busies itself with its plans of safety, and at each turn, feels that the human legislation it would trust to is but an arm of human folly stretched out to support a decrepit age of proud weakness. The Blood of the Lamb, once the world’s power, no longer flows upon it with its former plenty. And yet, the world goes on; it does so because of that same Sacrifice, which, though despised and in many lands totally suspended, is still offered in thousands of happy spots on earth; and on the world will go, for the time yet to come, until, in a final access of mad frenzy, it shall have put the last Priest to death, and taken away from every Altar here below, the eternal Sacrifice. . The incalculable influence of the Eucharistic Sacrifice, and its unlimited power, are brought forward in the following beautiful formula, which is a continuation of what we have already taken from the Apostolic Constitutions. . Constitutio Jacobi . Poscimus te ut super hæc dona placate respicias, tu qui nullius indiges Deus, et beneplaceas in eis ad honorem Christi tui, atque supra hoc sacrificium mittas sanctum tuum Spiritum, testem passionum Domini Jesu: ut participes illius ad pietatem confirmentur, remissionem peccatorum consequantur, diabolo ejusque errore liberentur, Spiritu sancto repleantur, digni Christo tuo fiant, vitam sempiternam impetrent, te illis reconciliato, Domine omnipotens. . We beseech Thee that Thou mercifully look down upon these gifts, Thou, O God, Who standest in need of none of our things; and be Thou well-pleased in them, for the honor of Thy Christ; send down upon this sacrifice Thy Spirit, He that was witness of the Lord Jesus’ sufferings; in order that they who are partakers of His (Body and Blood) may be strengthened unto piety, may obtain the remission of their sins, may be delivered from the devil and his deceit, may be filled with the Holy Ghost, may be made worthy of Thy Christ, and may obtain life everlasting, by Thy being reconciled to them, O almighty Lord. . Adhuc oramus te, Domine, pro santa Ecclesia tua, quæ a finibus ad fines extenditur, quam acquisisti pretioso sanguine Christi tui: ut eam inconcussam ac minime fluctuantem conserves usque in sæculi consummationem! item pro universo episcopatu recte verbum veritatis tractante ac distribuente, pro omni presbyterio, pro diaconis, ac universo clero: ut omnes sapientiam a te donatos Spiritu sancto impleas. . We further pray Thee, O Lord, for Thy holy Church, which is spread from one end of the world to the other, which Thou hast purchased by the precious Blood of Thy Christ: preserve it unshaken and free from disturbance until the consummation of time; we also pray for the whole episcopacy which rightly treats and distributes the word of truth; for the whole presbytery, for deacons, and the entire clergy; that, having enriched them with Wisdom, Thou mayst fill them with the Holy Spirit. . Adhuc rogamus te, Domine, pro rege et iis qui in sublimitate sunt et pro cuncto exercitu, ut res nostræ ni pace versentur; quo totum vitæ nostræ tempus in quiete et concordia trajicientes, te per Jesum Christum spem nostram gloria afficiamus. . We further pray Thee, O Lord, for the king and them that are in authority, and for the whole army, that all our affairs may be in peace; that, thereby, spending the whole time of our life in quietness and concord, we may glorify Thee, through Him Who is our hope, Christ Jesus. . Adhuc offerimus tibi pro omnibus sanctis qui a sæculo placuerunt tibi, patriarchis, prophetis, justis, apostolis, martyribus, confessoribus, episcopis, presbyteris, diaconis, subdiaconis, lectoribus, cantoribus, virginibus, viduis, laicis et omnnibus quorum tu nosti nomina. . We further offer Thee (this Sacrifice) for all the saints who have been pleasing to Thee from the beginning: patriarchs, prophets, righteous, apostles, martyrs, confessors, bishops, priests, deacons, subdeacons, lectors, chanters, virgins, widows, laity, and all whose names are known to Thee. . Adhuc offerimis tibi pro populo hoc: ut eum in laudem Christi tui exhibeas regale sacerdotium, gentem sanctam; pro iis qui in virginitate et castitate vivunt; pro viduis Ecclesiæ; pro iis qui in nuptiis honestis degunt; pro infantibus plebis tuæ: uti nostrum neminem rejiciendum habeas. . We further offer it to Thee for this people, that Thou wilt make them, to the praise of Thy Christ, a kingly priesthood and a holy nation; for them that live in virginity and chastity; for the Church’s widows; for them that live in honorable wedlock; for the infants of Thy people: that Thou mayst not cast any one of us away. . Adhuc poscimus te pro urbe hac et habitantibus in ea; pro ægrotis, pro dura servitute afflictis, pro exsulibus, pro proscriptis, pro navigantibus et iter facientibus: ut sis auxiliator, omnium adjutor ac defensor. . We further beseech Thee for this city and its inhabitants; for the sick; for them that are in cruel servitude; for them that are in banishment; for them that are in prison; for them that are travelling by sea or land: that Thou be their supporter, Thou the Helper and Defender of all. . Adhuc rogamus te pro iis qui oderunt nos et propter nomen tuum nos persequuntur, pro iis qui foris sunt ac errant: ut adducas eos ad bonum, et furorem eorum mitiges. . We further beseech Thee for them that hate and persecute us for Thy name’s sake; for them that are without, and are astray: that Thou lead them to what is good, and appease their fury. . Adhuc rogamus te et pro Ecclesiæ catechumenis, et pro iis qui ab adversario jactantur, et pro pœnitentiam agentibus fratribus nostris: ut primos quidem perficias in fide, alteros vero mundes a vexatione mali, tertiorum autem pœnitentiam suscipias, condonesque cum iis tum nobis quæ delinquimus. . We further also beseech Thee for the Church’s catechumens, and for the possessed by satan, and for our brethren the penitents: that Thou mayst perfect the first in faith, cleanse the second from the attacks of the wicked one, and accept the penance of the third, pardoning both them and us the offenses committed by us. . Offerimus quoque tibi pro aeris temperatura et frugum ubertate: ut indesinenter bona a te collata percipientes, asidue laudemus te qui das escam omni carni. . We offer it to Thee, likewise, for favorable weather and abundant crops: that ever receiving the good things Thou bestowest, we may cease not to praise Thee, Who givest food to all flesh. . Etiam rogamus te pro iis qui ob causam probabilem absentes sunt: ut omnes nos in pietate conservatos a te, in Christi tui, Dei universæ naturæ sub sensum et intelligentiam cadentis, regisque nostri regno congreges, immutabiles, inculpatos, irreprehensos. . We also beseech Thee for them that are absent for a just cause: that thus, being maintained in holiness by Thee, Thou mayst unite us all, immoveable, blameless, and without reproach, in the kingdom of Thy Christ, Who is the God of every creature both sensible and intellectual, and is also our King. . Quoniam tibi omnis gloria, veneratio, gratiarum actio, honor, adoratio: Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto, nunc, et semper, et in infinita ac sempiterna sæcula sæculorum. . For to Thee be all glory, worship, thanksgiving, honor, adoration, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, now, and ever, and for endless everlasting ages. . Atque omnis populis Amen respondeat. . And let all the people answer: Amen. . . We have taken the following fine Sequence from Daniel’s Thesaurus Hymnologicus. Unlike so many other liturgical pieces composed, in the 14th and 15th Centuries, in honor of the Blessed Sacrament, we find in it somewhat of the soul and spirit of the great Christian poets of earlier times. . De S. Sacramento Infra Septuagesimam et Quadragesimam. De superna Hierarchia, Vera descendit Sophia In uterum Virginis: Optatus Dux in hac via Venit natus de Maria, Esse portans hominis. . True Sophia, true Wisdom, came down, from the hierarchy of heaven, into the Virgin’s womb: our long-desired Guide in this life, came, born of Mary, having the nature of Man. . Magnæ Matris magnus Natus, Modo miro mundo natus, Mundi tollit crimina: Aufert morbos, dat salutem, Ante suos fert virtutem, Hostis fugans agmina. . Noble Son of noble Mother, born into this world in a wonderful manner, He takes that world’s sins away: He expels disease, bestows health, leads on his people with power, and puts the hostile ranks to flight. . Zelator mirabilis, Effectus passibilis, In cruce damnatur: Legislator veteris Legis plagis asperis Pro nobis plagatur. . He that is wonderful in His love, having become passible, is condemned to the Cross: He that is the giver of the Old Law is, for our sakes, wounded with cruel wounds. . Agnus in Cruce levatus, Et pro nobis immolatus, Fit salutis hostia: Vitæ nostræ reparator, Et virtutum restaurator, Cœli pandit ostia. . The Lamb being lifted up on the Cross, and immolated for us, is made the Victim of salvation: the Repairer of our life, the Restorer of all virtues, opens heaven’s gates. . Sacramenta dictat prius, Cœna magna, bene scius Quæ jam erant obvia: Præbens panem benedicit; Hoc est corpus meum, dicit; Sit mei memoria. . At the great Supper, He first declares His mysteries, knowing well what awaited Him. Taking bread, He blesses it, This, He says, is My Body: be it a remembrance of Me! . Data benedictio Fit a Dei Filio Vini propinati; Et cum benedicitur, Tunc sanguis efficitur Verbi incarnati. . The wine in the cup which He presents, is blessed by Him, Who is Son of God; and when blessed, it becomes the Blood of the Word made Flesh. . Deo nota sunt hæc soli: Credi debent atque coli, Amoto scrutinio: Justus tantum expers doli Sumat illa:—sed tu noli Involute vitio. . To God alone are these things understood; we are to believe and worship them, without prying into their depths: let the just man alone approach to receive them, who is of simple faith: if thou art cloaked in vice, approach not! . Cave, Juda, ne damneris: Petre, sume et salveris: Cibus est fidelium: Ad cujus mensam armatur Justus, reus et nudatur, Præda factus hostium. . Take heed, thou Judas! for thou wilt find thy condemnation! Thou, O Peter, take and find salvation! This is the food of Believers. At this Table, the just man is clad with armor; but the guilty one is stripped, and is made a prey to the foes. . Tua, Christe, sunt hæc mira; Serva sumentes ab ira Judicii: Orna nos veste gratiæ, Defende nos a facie Supplicii. Reparator salvifice, Dignos cibo nos effice Medecine cœlice. . These, O Christ, are Thy marvelous works: O save us, who receive them, from an angry judgment. Adorn us with the garb of grace! Defend us from punishment. O Thou restorer of salvation! O heavenly Physician! make us worthy of the food Thou givest us!

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Monday Within the Octave of Corpus Christi: From The Liturgical Year by Dom Prosper Louis Paschal Guéranger, O.S.B., 1904. . White Semidouble. . Christum regem adoremus dominantem gentibus, qui se manducantibus dat spiritus pingudeninem. . Let us adore Christ, the King, Who ruleth the nations; Who giveth fatness of spirit to them that eat Him. . The Lord hath sworn, and He will not repent Him of His oath: He hath sworn: “Thou art a Priest for ever, according to the order of Melchisedech!” Thus did the sons of Levi sing, to the expected Messias, in one of the loveliest of their Psalms. This noble and privileged family, this corona fratrum, standing, in all its glory, around the altar, whence there daily ascended the smoke of the victims burned on it,—this community of brethren celebrated, on the sacred harp, the Priesthood of the good things to come, and announced their own being set aside. Shadow and figure as it was, their own priesthood was to disappear, when the brightness of the divine realities of Calvary came. They were indebted to the infidelity of the nations, for their being called to perpetuate the worship of the true God, in His one single Temple; but this precarious honor would cease when the reconciliation of the world took place. Being Son of Juda, through David, the High Priest Christ receives nought of Aaron. When the inspired Psalmist sings a hymn in honour of our Jesus’ Priesthood, he goes back, in thought, to the ages beyond Moses; he passes the time of the twelve Patriarchs and their father Israel; and there, in the distant past, he meets with the type of a Priesthood, which is to have no limits, either of place or time: it is Melchisedech. Melchisedech receives, through Abraham, the homage of Abraham’s son, Levi; the priest of the uncircumcised nations gives a blessing to the venerable holder of the promise; and this mighty blessing, which is extended to the patriarch’s entire race, derives its efficacy from a mysterious sacrifice:—the peaceful offering of bread and wine to the Most High. . The priesthood of the King of justice and peace not only precedes that of Aaron as to time, but it is also to outlive it. And observe, it is at the very time when God was making a covenant with one single race, and thereby seemed to be turning away from all other nations, and was establishing the priestly order to their exclusion,—it is precisely then that the King-Priest of Salem, who has neither beginning of days nor end of life suddenly comes before us as the imposing image of our Eternal Priest, Who offers the divine Memorial, which is to perpetuate the great Sacrifice on the earth, and forever take the place of the bloody sacrifices of the Mosaic dispensation. . The Sacrifice of the Cross lasts all ages of time and fills eternity. And yet, as to time, it was the offering of one single day; and as to place, it was made but on one spot. It matters not: in every place, in every age, man must have the sacrifice ceaselessly offered up in his presence; he must have its offering renewed daily in his midst. As we have already seen, sacrifice is the center of the whole of religion; and man cannot dispense with religion, for it unites him to God as the sovereign Lord, and constitutes the primary bond of social life. As, then, to satisfy the imperious necessity, which showed itself from the very beginning of the world, divine Wisdom appointed those figurative offerings, which foretold the one great Sacrifice, and from which they derived what merit soever they possessed; so, in like manner, once the oblation of the great Victim made, it is again to supply the demands of mankind, and provide the world with a permanent Sacrifice; it is to be a Memorial, and not a Figure; it destroys not the unity of the Sacrifice of the Cross; and it applies the fruits of that one Sacrifice to each member of each future generation. . We will not here describe the Lord’s Supper, and the institution of that new Priesthood, which is as far above its predecessor as the promises it holds are more glorious, and the covenant, of which it forms the basis is more divine. We have had all the details of that marvellous history related to us on Maundy Thursday. It was on that day,—that day expected from all eternity; it was at that hour (cum facta esset Hora), that Hour so long put off, that divine Wisdom sat down to the supper and banquet of the New Covenant; He sat down, having with him the Twelve Apostles, who represented mankind. Putting an end to figures by a final immolation of the Paschal Lamb, Jesus exclaimed: With desire (that is, with immense desire), I have desired to eat this Pasch with you! The Man-God thus eased His Sacred Heart, which had so long waited for this Hour; He had so loved it! and it is now come! Then, forestalling the Jews, He immolates his victim,—the divine Lamb, signified by Abel, foretold by Isaias, shown by John the Precursor; and, by a miraculous anticipation, there is already in the holy chalice the Blood which, in a few hours hence, is to be flowing on Calvary; bread now changed into his Body, which has become the ransom of the world: Take, says this Jesus, take ye and eat: this is My Body, which shall be delivered for you! Take and drink this Chalice, which is the new testament in My Blood! This do ye for the commemoration of Me: that is, “As I am now anticipating, for your sakes, the death I am to suffer on the morrow, so you, when I have left this world, do this same for the commemoration of Me.” . The covenant, the alliance, is now made. The New Testament is declared, and like its predecessor, is sealed by Blood. If as yet it be of no force, save in prevision of the Testator’s real death, the reason is because this Jesus, Who is the Victim of the divine vengeance for the salvation of the whole world, has made a solemn covenant with His eternal Father, that this universal redemption is not to be effected but by the morrow’s cruel work. He has made Himself the Head of guilty mankind; He has made Himself responsible to God for the crimes of His own race; for the destruction of sin, therefore, He willingly submits to the stern laws of expiation, and by the torments He undergoes, reveals to the world how immense are the claims of eternal justice. Notwithstanding all this, the earth, from that very Thursday night, is in possession of the Chalice which is to announce the Saviour’s death until He come, by communicating to each member of the human family Christ’s real and true Blood, shed for our sins. And surely it was most fitting that our adorable High Priest Himself, and without all that display of outward violence,—which, a few hours later, is to disconcert the whole Apostolic college,—should offer Himself, with His own hands, as a true sacrifice to His Father; He would thus evince how spontaneous was His death, and do away with our ever having such a thought as that the treachery, or violence, or crime, of a handful of men, could be the origin and cause of the whole world’s salvation. . It is on this account that, lifting up his eyes to His Father (et elevatis oculis in cœlum ad te Deum Patrem suum omnipotentem), and giving thanks, He says, and in the present (as the Greek text gives the words): This is My Body, Which is given for you; this is My Blood, Which is shed for you. These words,—which He bequeaths, and with all their efficacy of power, to the representatives of His Priesthood,—really produce what they express. They not only change the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ; but as a mystical sword, they truly separate under the twofold species, and as far as their own power is concerned, they offer separately to the Father, the Body and Blood of our Lord, which are, indeed, united, but they are so by the omnipotent will of the infinite Majesty of God, Who was abundantly and eternally satisfied by the offering made on Calvary. As often, then, as the words of Consecration, which may be likened to those which drew the world out of nothing, are pronounced over wheaten bread and wine of the grape, by the mouth of a Priest,—no matter how long may be the time, or how distant the place, from the Sacrifice offered on Calvary,—that same moment, the august Victim, our Jesus, is then and there really present. It was one and the same Victim both at the Last Supper, and on the Cross, and It continues the same in the oblation made to the Father, now and to the end of time, and in all places, by the One High Priest, Christ our Lord, Who borrows and makes them His own, the hands and voice of the Priests of His Church, who have been chosen and consecrated, in the Holy Ghost, for this dread Ministry. Oh! how great will not these men be, who have been taken from among the rest of men, by the imposition of hands! New Christs, that is, new anointed Priests, identified, by their ministry, with the Son of Mary, they are the privileged members of divine Wisdom; they are closely united, by love, with the power which He Himself has; they are the companions of this Jesus in the doing that grand work which He, Wisdom, is ever doing throughout all ages: that is, the immolation of the great Victim, and the mingling of the Chalice, wherein our humanity, blended with its Head in the unity of the one same Sacrifice, derives also love for both its God and its fellow members, and is made to be partaker of the divine nature, as St. Peter words the mystery of union. . Praise, then, and glory be to our Jesus, the sovereign High Priest, for these noble sons of the human race! they are a marvel to heaven, and the pride of our earth! Surrounded by them, as is the palm tree with its victory-speaking palms, or the cedar, with its incorruptible branches, this divine Pontiff of ours comes forward like the olive tree budding forth its young plants, in which He puts, and with such an overflowingness, dignity, power, and holiness. And as the cypress tree that rears itself on high, hides its vigorous trunk beneath the forest of its ever-green branches,—so hiding His own direct action, and, as it were, retreating behind the countless Priests on earth, who derive all their power and unction from Him, our true High Priest draws them all to unity with His own adorable Self. On that night ever blessed, that night of the divine Supper, when, as He said, the hour had come for the Father and Son to glorify One the Other; it was just as He was on the point of ascending the blood-stained steps of the altar of the Cross, where was to be consummated the perfection of glory; yes, it was then, and thus early, that He manifested the power of His own divine Priesthood. Under the likeness and name of Simon, Son of Onias, who did such great things for the Temple, and saved his people from destruction; we have our Jesus, Whose praises are inspired and celebrated by the Holy Spirit, in that last of the Books descriptive of eternal Wisdom,—Ecclesiasticus. It is into the as yet feeble hands of His Apostles, whom He vouchsafes to call His friends, and His Brethren, that our Lord entrusts the oblation, which was to immortalize, and so, in a manner, extend His sacrifice to the King of Ages. His divine hands are stretched out, offering, as a libation, the blood of the grape: He pours it forth at the very foot of the altar, which is already being put up; and the fragrance of that offering makes its way to the Most High Prince. Our High Priest saw into the future; He heard the songs of triumph which would hymn the praises of the divine Memorial; He heard the sacred Psalmody, which would fill the great House, the Church, with ceaseless and sweet harmony, around the Tabernacle of His Presence; He saw millions prostrate in the adoration of Him, the Lord their God, and paying to the Almighty their now perfect homage. Then did He rise from the table of the Supper; He went out in His strength and His love, that He might, for a whole long day, stretch forth His hands in presence of the crowd of unbelieving and hostile children of Israel; He renewed his oblation, consummated His Sacrifice by His Blood, for, by the Cross, He wished to show the power of God. . “The evening Sacrifice, which was the Passion of Christ,” says St. Augustine, “became, in His Resurrection, the oblation of the morning.” It was a Sacrifice whose mysterious transformation was signified under the Law by the solemnly presenting to the Lord of a sheaf of the first-fruits of the wheat harvest; the presentation was to be made on the third day following the slaying of the Paschal Lamb. But the time for offering the very bread itself, the true wheat and food of souls, was not as yet come; and the law subjoined as follows: Ye shall count, therefore, from the morrow after the Sabbath, wherein ye offered the sheaf of the first-fruits, seven full weeks, even unto the morrow after the seventh week be expired, that is to say, fifty days: and then ye shall offer a new Sacrifice unto the Lord:—two loaves of flour,—the first-fruits of the Lord. Fifty days were to transpire, in the New Covenant, before the divine Agent came, Who alone could transform these gifts, this Bread and Wine. Pentecost, the glorious Pentecost, arose at last; and the creating Spirit came with a mighty wind. The Flesh of the Word, and the divine Blood, which He formed at the very onset, and are still in His keeping, awaited for their being reproduced in the sacred Mysteries, the incommunicable operation of Him Whose glorious masterpiece they are. “It was by Him Who is eternal Fire, that is, by the Spirit,” says the Abbot Rupert, “that Mary conceived; it was by Him that Jesus offered Himself, a living Victim, to the living God; and it is by the same Fire that He now burns on our altars, for it is by the operation of the Holy Ghost that the Bread is changed into His Body.” So, too, St. Denis the Areopagite, the great disciple of the Apostle St. Paul, teaches us that our Jesus, the supreme Hierarch, when He called His disciples to share in His sovereign priesthood,—although, as God, He was the author of all consecration, yet did He leave the consummation of their priesthood to the Holy Ghost; and He bade His Apostles not to depart from Jerusalem, but there wait for the promise of the Father, that is, for their being baptized with the Holy Ghost a few days later on. . “The Priest,” says St. John Chrysostom, “comes forth, carrying, not fire, as under the Law, but the Holy Ghost.” “It is a man who appears before us, but it is God Who works.” How shall this be done, said Mary to the Angel, for I know not man. Gabriel answers her: The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee. “And thou now askest me,” says St. John Damascene to an inquirer, “’How do the bread and wine and water become the Body and Blood of Christ?’ I answer thee: The Holy Ghost overshadows the Church, and achieves this Mystery, which is beyond all word and all imagination.” . Therefore it is that, as St. Fulgentius observes, “the Church cannot have any better reason for praying the coming of the Holy Ghost, than for the consecration of the Sacrifice, wherein, as under the shadow of the Spirit in the Virgin’s womb, the Wisdom of the Father united himself with the Man chosen by Him for the divine espousal, so the Church herself is united, by the Holy Ghost, to Christ, as a bride is to her spouse, or the body to its head.” It is on account of all this that the hour of Tierce (our hour of nine o’clock), the hour wherein the divine Paraclete came into this world, is the one set apart, by the Church, on each of her Festivals, for the solemn celebration of the great Sacrifice, over which this Blessed Spirit presides in the omnipotence of his operation. . O holy hour of Tierce! O sacred Nine o’Clock, as men call that third hour! it is then that the Bride, the Church of Christ, feels an alleviation of her exile; for though still on earth, she gives to her God an homage that is worthy of him, and receives back from him every grace wherewith to bless her dear children. In this sense, the Mass is her fortune, her dower; it belongs to her to regulate its celebration, to prescribe the formulas and the ceremonies, and to receive its fruits. The Priest is her minister: she prays; he immolates the Victim, and gives her prayer an infinite power. The indelible character of the Priesthood, stamped by God himself, on the Priest’s soul, makes him the exclusive depositary of the marvellous, the divine, power, and gives to the Sacrifice, offered by his hands, a validity which no human power can control; but he may not, licitly and lawfully, make the oblation, save in and with the Church. This mutual dependence, this union which confounds not, of the Priest and the Church in the Sacred Mysteries, was deeply impressed on the minds of the early Christians. In the cemetery of Saint Callixtus,—that central point of the Roman cemeteries, and the one set apart for the burial of the Bishops of the Mother Church during the entire 3rd Century,—there is a whole series of paintings going back as far as the beginning of the Catacomb itself. These were a symbolic teaching of the initiated how the dogma of the Eucharist was instituted by our Lord, as basis of the religion, whereof the Popes, who were buried there in the papal crypt, had been the faithful guardians. The repast of the seven disciples, for whom, during their mysterious fishing, Jesus himself has been preparing bread and a fish roasted on hot coals, is painted in one of the rooms, on the center of the wall facing the entrance door. On either side of this central subject, there are two other smaller ones: one is the sacrifice of Abraham, with its well known meaning; the other represents a non-historic scene, which, however, evidently forms a counterpart with the one on the other side; it speaks of the Sacrifice of the Christian Church; and symbolism so thoroughly hides the secret of the Mysteries from the profane, that we may expect the symbolism to be deep in proportion. On a table lies a loaf, whose meaning is made plain enough by the fish, the eucharistic icthus, being placed near it. On the spectator’s right hand is an aged female; she is standing, with her arms stretched out as an Orante, and is offering up her prayer to heaven; on the left is the figure of a young man; he wears a simple pallium, which was the usual garb of the Christian cleric in the 2nd Century; with an air of authority, he is holding his open hands over the table and its gifts. We know the meaning of all this; it is the Church, who is united, in the consecration, with the Priest, her minister and her son. With what fidelity does not this queen, who is in mourning for her Spouse, carry out the Testament which left her in the Sacrifice, the eternal and undying remembrance of his Death,—and he gave her that Testament at his Last Supper! While he gives his whole Self to her in the mystery of love, she is forcibly reminded, by the state of immolation in which she sees Him, that she is not to be taken up so much with the joy this sweet presence of His causes her, as with the duty of completing and continuing His work, by immolating herself together with Him. Under the Altar, where she and her Jesus meet, she, the valiant woman, has laid the relics of her Martyrs, for she is aware that the Passion of her Lord demands, from her children, who are His members, a something which will fill up what is wanting of His sufferings. She was produced from His open Side, when on His Cross, and she was espoused to Him in Death; that first embrace, which, from her very birth, put her Spouse’s Bleeding Body into her arms, has communicated to the soul of this second Eve the same inebriation of devotedness and love, which sent the heavenly Adam into his deep sleep on Calvary. . To this Church, then, to this Mother of the living, the immense human family runs with all its manifold miseries and countless wants. She makes good use of the treasure confided to her; that treasure is the Mass, and it supplies every necessity; and, by that same, she is enabled to fulfill all her duties, both as Bride and Mother. Each day identifying herself, more and more, with the universal Victim, Who imparts to her sacrifice His own infinite worth, the Church adores God’s sovereign Majesty, gives Him thanks for His favors, sues for the pardon of the past and present sins of her children, and asks for them the bestowal of blessings temporal and eternal. The precious Blood of her Jesus flows from her Altar upon the suffering souls in Purgatory, assuages their fire of expiation, or leads them to the place of refreshment, light, and peace. So great is the power of the Sacrifice offered in the Church that, of itself, and (as far as the principal effect is concerned) independently of the merits of the Priest or the people present, it fulfils those four ends, whose realization includes the sum total of religion,—that, is Adoration, Thanksgiving, Propitiation, and Impetration;—yes independently of the merits of the human Priest,—for it is the Victim, which gives this Sacrifice its worth; and the Victim on our Altars is the Same that was on Calvary; it is a Victim equal to the Father, Who offers Himself, as He did on the cross, for these same ends, and in one same Oblation. The Creator of space and time is not bound to observe their laws, and He has proved His divine independence in this mystery. “Just as though offered in many places, it is one and the same Body, and not several bodies,” says St. John Chrysostom, “so is it with the unity of the Sacrifice, though offered in different ages.” Between the Altar and the Cross, there is but the difference of the manner of the offering. Bloody on the Cross, unbloody on the Altar, the offering is one, notwithstanding this diversity of mode. The immolation of the august Victim on the Cross was a visible one, for it was amidst all the cruel horrors which slew Him; but the violence of the executioners concealed the Sacrifice offered to God, by the Incarnate Word, in the spontaneity of His generous love. At our Altar, the immolation is not visible; but the religious worship of the Sacrifice is as patent as the noon-day brightness, and as splendid in its glorious ritual. Upon the earth, which on that terrible Friday, had drunk the stream of its shedding, the precious Blood left the malediction of deicide; but the chalice of salvation held by the Church’s hand sheds benediction throughout our planet. . O glorious condition of this Earth of ours, from whose surface, the Lamb that is slain, Who is now receiving, on the Throne of God, the homage due to His triumph, is presenting, each day, in His state of infinite lowliness as Man, total satisfaction to His Father for the sins of the world, and a glory adequate to the perfections of the divine Majesty! The Angels are in admiration as they look down upon this our globe, mere speck as it is amidst the bright heavenly spheres, and yet so loved, from the very onset, by eternal Wisdom; they surround, trembling the while, this Altar on earth, so closely resembling, so one with theirs in heaven, that on the two, the one same High Priest pays homage to the one same God in the one same infinite Offering. Hell from its deepest depths trembles at it; and raging, as it does, against God and vowing vengeance against man, there is no object so hateful to it as this Sacrifice. What untiring efforts has not Satan been making, what artful designs has he not planned, in order to make this much detested Sacrifice cease! And alas! there has been, even in the very heart of Christendom, some partial success to those efforts and designs,—there has been the protestant heresy, which has destroyed thousands of our Altars, especially in our own dear fatherland,—and there is still the spirit of Revolution which is spreading as our modern times grow older, and whose avowed aim is to shut up our Churches, and do away with the Priests who offer sacrifice! . So it is: and therefore, our world, which heretofore used to be set right again after the storms that swept its surface, now complains that the impending ruin is a universal one, and one wherein there is no strength, save in the very chastisements sent by God. It vainly busies itself with its plans of safety, and at each turn, feels that the human legislation it would trust to is but an arm of human folly stretched out to support a decrepit age of proud weakness. The Blood of the Lamb, once the world’s power, no longer flows upon it with its former plenty. And yet, the world goes on; it does so because of that same Sacrifice, which, though despised and in many lands totally suspended, is still offered in thousands of happy spots on earth; and on the world will go, for the time yet to come, until, in a final access of mad frenzy, it shall have put the last Priest to death, and taken away from every Altar here below, the eternal Sacrifice. . The incalculable influence of the Eucharistic Sacrifice, and its unlimited power, are brought forward in the following beautiful formula, which is a continuation of what we have already taken from the Apostolic Constitutions. . Constitutio Jacobi . Poscimus te ut super hæc dona placate respicias, tu qui nullius indiges Deus, et beneplaceas in eis ad honorem Christi tui, atque supra hoc sacrificium mittas sanctum tuum Spiritum, testem passionum Domini Jesu: ut participes illius ad pietatem confirmentur, remissionem peccatorum consequantur, diabolo ejusque errore liberentur, Spiritu sancto repleantur, digni Christo tuo fiant, vitam sempiternam impetrent, te illis reconciliato, Domine omnipotens. . We beseech Thee that Thou mercifully look down upon these gifts, Thou, O God, Who standest in need of none of our things; and be Thou well-pleased in them, for the honor of Thy Christ; send down upon this sacrifice Thy Spirit, He that was witness of the Lord Jesus’ sufferings; in order that they who are partakers of His (Body and Blood) may be strengthened unto piety, may obtain the remission of their sins, may be delivered from the devil and his deceit, may be filled with the Holy Ghost, may be made worthy of Thy Christ, and may obtain life everlasting, by Thy being reconciled to them, O almighty Lord. . Adhuc oramus te, Domine, pro santa Ecclesia tua, quæ a finibus ad fines extenditur, quam acquisisti pretioso sanguine Christi tui: ut eam inconcussam ac minime fluctuantem conserves usque in sæculi consummationem! item pro universo episcopatu recte verbum veritatis tractante ac distribuente, pro omni presbyterio, pro diaconis, ac universo clero: ut omnes sapientiam a te donatos Spiritu sancto impleas. . We further pray Thee, O Lord, for Thy holy Church, which is spread from one end of the world to the other, which Thou hast purchased by the precious Blood of Thy Christ: preserve it unshaken and free from disturbance until the consummation of time; we also pray for the whole episcopacy which rightly treats and distributes the word of truth; for the whole presbytery, for deacons, and the entire clergy; that, having enriched them with Wisdom, Thou mayst fill them with the Holy Spirit. . Adhuc rogamus te, Domine, pro rege et iis qui in sublimitate sunt et pro cuncto exercitu, ut res nostræ ni pace versentur; quo totum vitæ nostræ tempus in quiete et concordia trajicientes, te per Jesum Christum spem nostram gloria afficiamus. . We further pray Thee, O Lord, for the king and them that are in authority, and for the whole army, that all our affairs may be in peace; that, thereby, spending the whole time of our life in quietness and concord, we may glorify Thee, through Him Who is our hope, Christ Jesus. . Adhuc offerimus tibi pro omnibus sanctis qui a sæculo placuerunt tibi, patriarchis, prophetis, justis, apostolis, martyribus, confessoribus, episcopis, presbyteris, diaconis, subdiaconis, lectoribus, cantoribus, virginibus, viduis, laicis et omnnibus quorum tu nosti nomina. . We further offer Thee (this Sacrifice) for all the saints who have been pleasing to Thee from the beginning: patriarchs, prophets, righteous, apostles, martyrs, confessors, bishops, priests, deacons, subdeacons, lectors, chanters, virgins, widows, laity, and all whose names are known to Thee. . Adhuc offerimis tibi pro populo hoc: ut eum in laudem Christi tui exhibeas regale sacerdotium, gentem sanctam; pro iis qui in virginitate et castitate vivunt; pro viduis Ecclesiæ; pro iis qui in nuptiis honestis degunt; pro infantibus plebis tuæ: uti nostrum neminem rejiciendum habeas. . We further offer it to Thee for this people, that Thou wilt make them, to the praise of Thy Christ, a kingly priesthood and a holy nation; for them that live in virginity and chastity; for the Church’s widows; for them that live in honorable wedlock; for the infants of Thy people: that Thou mayst not cast any one of us away. . Adhuc poscimus te pro urbe hac et habitantibus in ea; pro ægrotis, pro dura servitute afflictis, pro exsulibus, pro proscriptis, pro navigantibus et iter facientibus: ut sis auxiliator, omnium adjutor ac defensor. . We further beseech Thee for this city and its inhabitants; for the sick; for them that are in cruel servitude; for them that are in banishment; for them that are in prison; for them that are travelling by sea or land: that Thou be their supporter, Thou the Helper and Defender of all. . Adhuc rogamus te pro iis qui oderunt nos et propter nomen tuum nos persequuntur, pro iis qui foris sunt ac errant: ut adducas eos ad bonum, et furorem eorum mitiges. . We further beseech Thee for them that hate and persecute us for Thy name’s sake; for them that are without, and are astray: that Thou lead them to what is good, and appease their fury. . Adhuc rogamus te et pro Ecclesiæ catechumenis, et pro iis qui ab adversario jactantur, et pro pœnitentiam agentibus fratribus nostris: ut primos quidem perficias in fide, alteros vero mundes a vexatione mali, tertiorum autem pœnitentiam suscipias, condonesque cum iis tum nobis quæ delinquimus. . We further also beseech Thee for the Church’s catechumens, and for the possessed by satan, and for our brethren the penitents: that Thou mayst perfect the first in faith, cleanse the second from the attacks of the wicked one, and accept the penance of the third, pardoning both them and us the offenses committed by us. . Offerimus quoque tibi pro aeris temperatura et frugum ubertate: ut indesinenter bona a te collata percipientes, asidue laudemus te qui das escam omni carni. . We offer it to Thee, likewise, for favorable weather and abundant crops: that ever receiving the good things Thou bestowest, we may cease not to praise Thee, Who givest food to all flesh. . Etiam rogamus te pro iis qui ob causam probabilem absentes sunt: ut omnes nos in pietate conservatos a te, in Christi tui, Dei universæ naturæ sub sensum et intelligentiam cadentis, regisque nostri regno congreges, immutabiles, inculpatos, irreprehensos. . We also beseech Thee for them that are absent for a just cause: that thus, being maintained in holiness by Thee, Thou mayst unite us all, immoveable, blameless, and without reproach, in the kingdom of Thy Christ, Who is the God of every creature both sensible and intellectual, and is also our King. . Quoniam tibi omnis gloria, veneratio, gratiarum actio, honor, adoratio: Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto, nunc, et semper, et in infinita ac sempiterna sæcula sæculorum. . For to Thee be all glory, worship, thanksgiving, honor, adoration, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, now, and ever, and for endless everlasting ages. . Atque omnis populis Amen respondeat. . And let all the people answer: Amen. . . We have taken the following fine Sequence from Daniel’s Thesaurus Hymnologicus. Unlike so many other liturgical pieces composed, in the 14th and 15th Centuries, in honor of the Blessed Sacrament, we find in it somewhat of the soul and spirit of the great Christian poets of earlier times. . De S. Sacramento Infra Septuagesimam et Quadragesimam. De superna Hierarchia, Vera descendit Sophia In uterum Virginis: Optatus Dux in hac via Venit natus de Maria, Esse portans hominis. . True Sophia, true Wisdom, came down, from the hierarchy of heaven, into the Virgin’s womb: our long-desired Guide in this life, came, born of Mary, having the nature of Man. . Magnæ Matris magnus Natus, Modo miro mundo natus, Mundi tollit crimina: Aufert morbos, dat salutem, Ante suos fert virtutem, Hostis fugans agmina. . Noble Son of noble Mother, born into this world in a wonderful manner, He takes that world’s sins away: He expels disease, bestows health, leads on his people with power, and puts the hostile ranks to flight. . Zelator mirabilis, Effectus passibilis, In cruce damnatur: Legislator veteris Legis plagis asperis Pro nobis plagatur. . He that is wonderful in His love, having become passible, is condemned to the Cross: He that is the giver of the Old Law is, for our sakes, wounded with cruel wounds. . Agnus in Cruce levatus, Et pro nobis immolatus, Fit salutis hostia: Vitæ nostræ reparator, Et virtutum restaurator, Cœli pandit ostia. . The Lamb being lifted up on the Cross, and immolated for us, is made the Victim of salvation: the Repairer of our life, the Restorer of all virtues, opens heaven’s gates. . Sacramenta dictat prius, Cœna magna, bene scius Quæ jam erant obvia: Præbens panem benedicit; Hoc est corpus meum, dicit; Sit mei memoria. . At the great Supper, He first declares His mysteries, knowing well what awaited Him. Taking bread, He blesses it, This, He says, is My Body: be it a remembrance of Me! . Data benedictio Fit a Dei Filio Vini propinati; Et cum benedicitur, Tunc sanguis efficitur Verbi incarnati. . The wine in the cup which He presents, is blessed by Him, Who is Son of God; and when blessed, it becomes the Blood of the Word made Flesh. . Deo nota sunt hæc soli: Credi debent atque coli, Amoto scrutinio: Justus tantum expers doli Sumat illa:—sed tu noli Involute vitio. . To God alone are these things understood; we are to believe and worship them, without prying into their depths: let the just man alone approach to receive them, who is of simple faith: if thou art cloaked in vice, approach not! . Cave, Juda, ne damneris: Petre, sume et salveris: Cibus est fidelium: Ad cujus mensam armatur Justus, reus et nudatur, Præda factus hostium. . Take heed, thou Judas! for thou wilt find thy condemnation! Thou, O Peter, take and find salvation! This is the food of Believers. At this Table, the just man is clad with armor; but the guilty one is stripped, and is made a prey to the foes. . Tua, Christe, sunt hæc mira; Serva sumentes ab ira Judicii: Orna nos veste gratiæ, Defende nos a facie Supplicii. Reparator salvifice, Dignos cibo nos effice Medecine cœlice. . These, O Christ, are Thy marvelous works: O save us, who receive them, from an angry judgment. Adorn us with the garb of grace! Defend us from punishment. O Thou restorer of salvation! O heavenly Physician! make us worthy of the food Thou givest us!

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