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Despite human inventiveness and ingenuity, we still lag far behind the elegant and efficient solutions forged by nature over millions of years of evolution. This also applies for buildings, where animals and plants, have developed extremely effective digging methods, for example, that are far more energy-efficient than modern tunneling machines, and even self-repairing foundations that are unusually resistant to erosion and earthquakes (yep, we're talking about roots here). Researchers from all over the world are therefore seeking inspiration in nature to develop the buildings of the future, and researchers from Aarhus University and University of California Davis have now in collaboration published an article in the scientific journal Acta Geotechnica about constructing foundations inspired by the scales on a snake. "Previous studies have shown that surface geometry inspired by snakeskin can result in different shear strengths, depending on the load direction. We've taken this knowledge one step further in this research and investigated the interaction between different soil types and these snakeskin surfaces," says Assistant Professor Hans Henning Stutz from the Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering at Aarhus University. Modern pile foundations are usually made by driving, drilling or pushing piles into the ground to achieve sufficient bearing capacity for a building. Today, the piles are usually prefabricated with quadratic or circular cross-sections and a load-bearing capacity that is isotropic (identical in all shear directions) due to the mainly symmetrical, smooth profile of the surface. However, in the study, the researchers experimented with asymmetric micro-structural features on the surface, resembling the scales along the underside of a snake. These so-called ventral scales are elongated in shape, relatively smooth, and have cross-section shaped like an elongated, right-angled triangle. "By experimenting with 'scales' measuring 0.5 mm in height and 20-60 mm in length, we've achieved—in lab conditions—a significantly increased load-bearing capacity in the media we've examined: more specifically different types of sand. The results of the project show that piles with this surface pattern give 25-50 per cent less resistance during installation compared with the pressure they can subsequently support," says Hans Henning Stutz. According to the assistant professor, there is still a lot be gained from biology when optimizing structures and durable foundations, and he believes that future construction will find much more inspiration in biology. "Evolution has come up with some quite inspiring solutions during the ages, and there's a lot to be gained in a geotechnical perspective. I'm convinced that in the future we'll see major developments in bio-inspired and very effective solutions, especially in areas such as anchoring, tunnels, and marine constructions," he says. https://techxplore.com/news/2021-05-snakeskin-safer.html
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Last weekend, China celebrated its sixth "National Space Day" in Nanjing, an event that highlights advances China has made in space. Similar to Space Day that is held each year on the first Thursday in May (this year, it will be held on May 7th), the goal is to foster interest in space exploration and the STEMS so as to inspire the next generation of astronauts and aerospace engineers. This year, the festivities focused on the Chang'e-5 mission (which showcased some of the lunar samples it brought back), and the name of China's first Mars rover (Zhurong) – which will be landing on the Red Planet later this month. But another interesting snippet was a video presented by one of China's main rocket manufacturers that showed demonstrated that they are working on a rocket similar to the Starship. The video, titled "One Hour Global Arrival in the Space Transportation System," was presented by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) – one of the country's main state-owned rocket manufacturers. Similar to what Musk and SpaceX have proposed for the Starship, the video explores the potential for rocket systems that could deliver suborbital point-to-point transportation services. The animation was recorded and uploaded to the Chinese social network Weibo, which was accompanied by the following description (translated directly from Mandarin). "The promotional animation of 'One-Hour Global Arrival in Space Transportation System' of the First Academy of Aerospace Engineering, compare? This afternoon was recorded from [2021 Chinese Astronomy Day] Booth of China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology at the Aerospace Industry Achievement Exhibition. If you want to make an appointment to visit Lunar Land, please go to the bottom of this blog." In the video, we can see two different concepts for achieving suborbital passenger flights that could be operational by the 2040s. The video came to the attention of Eric Berger at Ars Technica, which mirrored it on Youtube so that it could reach a wider audience. The animation begins by showing a spaceport with several launch pads nearby. On each, we see two-stage vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) rockets that look strikingly similar to the Starship and Super Heavy. Also similar to the Starship is the way the first stage booster returns to Earth after separation, indicating that it is a totally reusable system. We then see passengers scening views of Earth and experiencing temporary weightlessness before the spacecraft begins making a powered descent. The flight ends with the spacecraft landing in a major city clearly several time zones away (since it's nighttime where they land). In addition to its appearance and configuration, the animation is also similar to the "Earth to Earth" concept video released by SpaceX in September of 2017 (shown below). In that animation, a Starship ferries passengers from a platform at sea off the coast of New York and land on a similar platform off the coast of Shanghai in just 34 minutes. The second point-to-point concept in the Chinese animation shows a horizontal takeoff and landing (HTOL) vehicle being launched via an electromagnetic rail. Once this "spaceplane" is catapulted into the air, it engages what appears to be a hybrid-propellant rocket engine to accelerate from Mach 2 to Mach 15 (supersonic to hypersonic) and achieve suborbital flight. Both of these concepts incorporate technology and ideas that are widely popular right now with both space agencies and commercial space. Between NASA, the ESA, SpaceX, Blue Origin, Sierra Nevada, Reaction Engines, and other federal and private programs, multiple reusable rocket and spaceplane concepts are currently under development. Credit: SpaceX What's more, both are consistent with China's long-term aim to become the world's leading space power by 2045. According to the roadmap released by the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation in 2017, China hopes to develop a "suborbital carrier vehicle" by 2025 that will eventually grow into a fleet, one which is capable of delivering cargo anywhere in the world by 2035 and passengers by 2045. However, the clear resemblance between CALT's rocket concept and the Starship is also in keeping with the way China has monitored SpaceX's progress practically from inception. As Eric Berger noted in his recently-published book Liftoff—which recounts the early struggles of SpaceX—a Chinese spy boat was stationed off the coast of Omelek Island (part of the Marshall Islands, South Pacific) in 2006 to watch the inaugural flight of the Falcon 1. More recent examples include the incorporation of "grid fins" to the Long March 2C rocket (similar to the Falcon 9) for the sake of future reusability, as well as developing the Long March 8 to land on sea platforms. China's long-term plan for the Long March 9—which will be the country's most powerful heavy-lift system once it is in service (slated for the 2030s) – includes making it partly reusable. In the meantime, it is not clear if China plans to develop a Starship-like rocket would include equipping it for missions to the moon and Mars (in addition to point-to-point suborbital flights). But since regular missions to the moon and Mars were also part of the roadmap, it's entirely possible China intends to adopt the Starship design and mission profile in its entirety. One thing is for certain: China intends to be the superpower in space by the mid-21st century, and not merely one of several. While they have some catch-up to do before that can happen, their rate of growth is unparalleled. https://phys.org/news/2021-05-chinese-company-starship-like-rocket.html
63 views · May 4th
By Earth standards, the surface of Mars is the picture of desolation. It's not only irradiated and cold enough to make Antarctica look balmy, but it's also one-thousands times drier than the driest places on Earth. However, beneath the super-arid surface of the Red Planet, there are abundant supplies of water ice that could someday be accessible to human explorers (and even settlers). This is especially the case in the mid-latitude region known as Arcadia Planitia, a smooth plain located in Martian northern lowlands. According to new research conducted with support from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the region shows signs of glaciers and glacier activity. These findings could prove very useful for the future human landings and exploration of Mars, not to mention potential settlement. The study, which recently appeared in the scientific journal Icarus, was led by Shannon Hibbard—a Ph.D. candidate in geology and planetary science at the University of Western Ontario (UWO). She was joined by Dr. Gordon R. Osinski of UWO's Institute for Earth and Space Exploration (IESE), and Etienne Godin, a data scientist at the Center for Northern Studies at Laval University; and Nathan Williams and Matthew Golombek of NASA JPL. Is There Ice on Mars? Speculation about the existence of ice on Mars goes back centuries but remained uncertain until NASA's Viking missions became the second and third missions to land on Mars in the 1970s. These noted the presence of atmospheric water vapor and glacier-like features, which included widespread ripples and accumulations of unconsolidated material (moraines). MRO investigating Martian water cycle. Credit: NASA/JPL/Corby Waste These features are commonly associated with glacial landscapes here on Earth. Since it was not yet confirmed that Mars once had water on its surface, the scientific community cautiously referred to these features as "viscous flow features." And since exposed water ice sublimates on Mars from the low air pressure and exposure to solar radiation, researchers conjectured that these glaciers would need to be protected by a thick layer of regolith. By 2002, sensor data obtained by the Mars Odyssey orbiter confirmed the presence of subsurface water ice in the mid-latitudes region of Mars. These findings were confirmed in 2008 by the Phoenix Lander, which noted the presence of subsurface water ice in the northern arctic plain. Then came the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), which detected abundant subterranean water ice beneath the flat plains of Arcadia Planitia. The MRO's ground-penetrating radar indicated that this ice extended from the surface (under a layer of dust and debris) downward to a depth of 38 meters (~125 ft). Data provided by these and other missions have accumulated data that has allowed scientists to map, catalog, and categorize thousands of features that are likely the result of glacier activity. Glaciers in the Region For the sake of their study, Hibbard and her colleagues mapped out dozens of surface features in Arcadia Planitia, looking for these same kinds of "sinuous features." In the process, they found ripples and furrows in valleys and on hillsides, which are typical wherever ice flowed downhill. However, Hubbard and her team also found these features in a flat-lying region of Arcadia Planitia that was isolated from any bluffs or slopes. Underground water ice on Mars, cool colors are closer to the surface than warm colors, the outlined box represents the ideal region to send astronauts for them to dig up water ice. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU This left only one possibility, which is that glaciers once flowed across these flat areas of the surface as well. As Hibbard explained in an interview with GlacierHub: "Finding possible flow features in this flat-lying region was very exciting. Previous studies have suggested there is a buried ice sheet at our study site, and our evidence of channelized ice within this ice sheet indicates that there are more complex glacial dynamics at hand on Mars." To determine what would make this ice sheet flow, Hibbard and her team compared the flow features of Arcadia Planitia to similar features found in Antarctica's ice streams—where regions in the flat ice sheet move faster than their surroundings. While researchers do not know the exact cause of these ice streams, they have inferred that it could be due to a combination of subsurface topography and melting at the bottom of the ice sheet. In the case of Arcadia Planitia, the ice sheet has stopped flowing since and become a stagnant ice stream, accumulating a thicker layer of surface debris. These unique characteristics present an important possibility for future crewed missions to Mars. In short, could this water ice be extracted for the sake of human consumption? An artist’s rendering from NASA HiRISE data of a mid-latitude glacier on Mars, insulated by a surface layer of dust and rock. Located at Mesa Wall in Protonilus Mensae on Mars. Credit: Kevin Gill Human-Rated Missions Whereas most glaciers on Mars and their subsurface ice are located near bluffs and on slopes, the Arcadia Planitia glacier forms a temperate flat ice sheet that is near to the surface. What's more, there are few geographical hazards to contend with (such as surface boulders and debris), which makes it both an ideal landing site and a good spot for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) during future human missions. This sets it apart from glacial patches that are closer to the polar regions, which are easily accessible, but which are extremely cold compared to the mid-latitudes. As Germán Martínez, a staff scientist at the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), said in a statement to GlacierHub: "n general, it's more feasible to go to low and mid latitudes, where temperatures are milder and solar energy is available throughout the year … in these mid and low latitudes, though, water ice is typically deeper in the subsurface than in polar latitudes." What's more, the Arcadian ice investigated by Hibbard and her colleagues may actually be more easily accessible than other known water ice deposits at mid-Martian latitudes. So if and when crewed missions become a regular occurrence on Mars, this ice may prove indispensable to astronauts and their habitats, providing everything from drinking and irrigation water to the raw material for manufacturing fuel. In time, the subsurface glacier may be tapped for an even more ambitious purpose—like the terraforming of Mars! If Mars is ever to become a warmer and wetter planet (as it was billions of years ago), then subsurface ice deposits like this one will be absolutely essential to the transition. https://phys.org/news/2021-05-mid-latitude-glaciers-mars-human-explorers.html
68 views · May 4th
A new map including rover paths of the Schrödinger basin, a geologically important area of the moon, could guide future exploration missions.The map was created by a team of interns at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, including Ellen Czaplinski, a U of A graduate student researcher at the Arkansas Center for Planetary Sciences and first author of a paper published in The Planetary Science Journal. The researchers identified significant geologic features of the Schrödinger basin, located near the lunar south pole. Schrödinger is the second-youngest impact basin on the moon and includes diverse crustal features and rock types that are important to understanding the moon's geological history. "When the Schrödinger basin was formed, some of these lithologies (the general physical characteristics of the rocks) may have been uplifted from very deep below the lunar surface," Czaplinski said. "Therefore, investigating these rocks up close is extremely important for answering high-priority science goals." In 2007, the National Research Council outlined scientific objectives and goals of future lunar missions, including exploration of the South Pole-Aitken basin, the oldest and deepest impact basin on the moon. Because the Schrödinger basin is located within the South Pole-Aitken basin, it presents a unique opportunity to study rocks that possibly originated deep below the surface, Czaplinski said. "Many of these rock types are exposed at the surface in multi-kilometer long exposures of rock outcrops in Schrödinger's 'peak ring,' an inner ring of uplifted rocks that formed with the basin. Sampling these rocks within the peak ring provides high scientific potential for further understanding the context of Schrödinger's lithologies." Along with the map, researchers created three potential paths for robotic rovers to travel through the Schrödinger basin to collect high-priority rock samples. https://phys.org/news/2021-05-lunar-future-exploration-missions.html
60 views · May 4th

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Last weekend, China celebrated its sixth "National Space Day" in Nanjing, an event that highlights advances China has made in space. Similar to Space Day that is held each year on the first Thursday in May (this year, it will be held on May 7th), the goal is to foster interest in space exploration and the STEMS so as to inspire the next generation of astronauts and aerospace engineers. This year, the festivities focused on the Chang'e-5 mission (which showcased some of the lunar samples it brought back), and the name of China's first Mars rover (Zhurong) – which will be landing on the Red Planet later this month. But another interesting snippet was a video presented by one of China's main rocket manufacturers that showed demonstrated that they are working on a rocket similar to the Starship. The video, titled "One Hour Global Arrival in the Space Transportation System," was presented by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) – one of the country's main state-owned rocket manufacturers. Similar to what Musk and SpaceX have proposed for the Starship, the video explores the potential for rocket systems that could deliver suborbital point-to-point transportation services. The animation was recorded and uploaded to the Chinese social network Weibo, which was accompanied by the following description (translated directly from Mandarin). "The promotional animation of 'One-Hour Global Arrival in Space Transportation System' of the First Academy of Aerospace Engineering, compare? This afternoon was recorded from [2021 Chinese Astronomy Day] Booth of China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology at the Aerospace Industry Achievement Exhibition. If you want to make an appointment to visit Lunar Land, please go to the bottom of this blog." In the video, we can see two different concepts for achieving suborbital passenger flights that could be operational by the 2040s. The video came to the attention of Eric Berger at Ars Technica, which mirrored it on Youtube so that it could reach a wider audience. The animation begins by showing a spaceport with several launch pads nearby. On each, we see two-stage vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) rockets that look strikingly similar to the Starship and Super Heavy. Also similar to the Starship is the way the first stage booster returns to Earth after separation, indicating that it is a totally reusable system. We then see passengers scening views of Earth and experiencing temporary weightlessness before the spacecraft begins making a powered descent. The flight ends with the spacecraft landing in a major city clearly several time zones away (since it's nighttime where they land). In addition to its appearance and configuration, the animation is also similar to the "Earth to Earth" concept video released by SpaceX in September of 2017 (shown below). In that animation, a Starship ferries passengers from a platform at sea off the coast of New York and land on a similar platform off the coast of Shanghai in just 34 minutes. The second point-to-point concept in the Chinese animation shows a horizontal takeoff and landing (HTOL) vehicle being launched via an electromagnetic rail. Once this "spaceplane" is catapulted into the air, it engages what appears to be a hybrid-propellant rocket engine to accelerate from Mach 2 to Mach 15 (supersonic to hypersonic) and achieve suborbital flight. Both of these concepts incorporate technology and ideas that are widely popular right now with both space agencies and commercial space. Between NASA, the ESA, SpaceX, Blue Origin, Sierra Nevada, Reaction Engines, and other federal and private programs, multiple reusable rocket and spaceplane concepts are currently under development. Credit: SpaceX What's more, both are consistent with China's long-term aim to become the world's leading space power by 2045. According to the roadmap released by the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation in 2017, China hopes to develop a "suborbital carrier vehicle" by 2025 that will eventually grow into a fleet, one which is capable of delivering cargo anywhere in the world by 2035 and passengers by 2045. However, the clear resemblance between CALT's rocket concept and the Starship is also in keeping with the way China has monitored SpaceX's progress practically from inception. As Eric Berger noted in his recently-published book Liftoff—which recounts the early struggles of SpaceX—a Chinese spy boat was stationed off the coast of Omelek Island (part of the Marshall Islands, South Pacific) in 2006 to watch the inaugural flight of the Falcon 1. More recent examples include the incorporation of "grid fins" to the Long March 2C rocket (similar to the Falcon 9) for the sake of future reusability, as well as developing the Long March 8 to land on sea platforms. China's long-term plan for the Long March 9—which will be the country's most powerful heavy-lift system once it is in service (slated for the 2030s) – includes making it partly reusable. In the meantime, it is not clear if China plans to develop a Starship-like rocket would include equipping it for missions to the moon and Mars (in addition to point-to-point suborbital flights). But since regular missions to the moon and Mars were also part of the roadmap, it's entirely possible China intends to adopt the Starship design and mission profile in its entirety. One thing is for certain: China intends to be the superpower in space by the mid-21st century, and not merely one of several. While they have some catch-up to do before that can happen, their rate of growth is unparalleled. https://phys.org/news/2021-05-chinese-company-starship-like-rocket.html
63 views · May 4th
By Earth standards, the surface of Mars is the picture of desolation. It's not only irradiated and cold enough to make Antarctica look balmy, but it's also one-thousands times drier than the driest places on Earth. However, beneath the super-arid surface of the Red Planet, there are abundant supplies of water ice that could someday be accessible to human explorers (and even settlers). This is especially the case in the mid-latitude region known as Arcadia Planitia, a smooth plain located in Martian northern lowlands. According to new research conducted with support from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the region shows signs of glaciers and glacier activity. These findings could prove very useful for the future human landings and exploration of Mars, not to mention potential settlement. The study, which recently appeared in the scientific journal Icarus, was led by Shannon Hibbard—a Ph.D. candidate in geology and planetary science at the University of Western Ontario (UWO). She was joined by Dr. Gordon R. Osinski of UWO's Institute for Earth and Space Exploration (IESE), and Etienne Godin, a data scientist at the Center for Northern Studies at Laval University; and Nathan Williams and Matthew Golombek of NASA JPL. Is There Ice on Mars? Speculation about the existence of ice on Mars goes back centuries but remained uncertain until NASA's Viking missions became the second and third missions to land on Mars in the 1970s. These noted the presence of atmospheric water vapor and glacier-like features, which included widespread ripples and accumulations of unconsolidated material (moraines). MRO investigating Martian water cycle. Credit: NASA/JPL/Corby Waste These features are commonly associated with glacial landscapes here on Earth. Since it was not yet confirmed that Mars once had water on its surface, the scientific community cautiously referred to these features as "viscous flow features." And since exposed water ice sublimates on Mars from the low air pressure and exposure to solar radiation, researchers conjectured that these glaciers would need to be protected by a thick layer of regolith. By 2002, sensor data obtained by the Mars Odyssey orbiter confirmed the presence of subsurface water ice in the mid-latitudes region of Mars. These findings were confirmed in 2008 by the Phoenix Lander, which noted the presence of subsurface water ice in the northern arctic plain. Then came the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), which detected abundant subterranean water ice beneath the flat plains of Arcadia Planitia. The MRO's ground-penetrating radar indicated that this ice extended from the surface (under a layer of dust and debris) downward to a depth of 38 meters (~125 ft). Data provided by these and other missions have accumulated data that has allowed scientists to map, catalog, and categorize thousands of features that are likely the result of glacier activity. Glaciers in the Region For the sake of their study, Hibbard and her colleagues mapped out dozens of surface features in Arcadia Planitia, looking for these same kinds of "sinuous features." In the process, they found ripples and furrows in valleys and on hillsides, which are typical wherever ice flowed downhill. However, Hubbard and her team also found these features in a flat-lying region of Arcadia Planitia that was isolated from any bluffs or slopes. Underground water ice on Mars, cool colors are closer to the surface than warm colors, the outlined box represents the ideal region to send astronauts for them to dig up water ice. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU This left only one possibility, which is that glaciers once flowed across these flat areas of the surface as well. As Hibbard explained in an interview with GlacierHub: "Finding possible flow features in this flat-lying region was very exciting. Previous studies have suggested there is a buried ice sheet at our study site, and our evidence of channelized ice within this ice sheet indicates that there are more complex glacial dynamics at hand on Mars." To determine what would make this ice sheet flow, Hibbard and her team compared the flow features of Arcadia Planitia to similar features found in Antarctica's ice streams—where regions in the flat ice sheet move faster than their surroundings. While researchers do not know the exact cause of these ice streams, they have inferred that it could be due to a combination of subsurface topography and melting at the bottom of the ice sheet. In the case of Arcadia Planitia, the ice sheet has stopped flowing since and become a stagnant ice stream, accumulating a thicker layer of surface debris. These unique characteristics present an important possibility for future crewed missions to Mars. In short, could this water ice be extracted for the sake of human consumption? An artist’s rendering from NASA HiRISE data of a mid-latitude glacier on Mars, insulated by a surface layer of dust and rock. Located at Mesa Wall in Protonilus Mensae on Mars. Credit: Kevin Gill Human-Rated Missions Whereas most glaciers on Mars and their subsurface ice are located near bluffs and on slopes, the Arcadia Planitia glacier forms a temperate flat ice sheet that is near to the surface. What's more, there are few geographical hazards to contend with (such as surface boulders and debris), which makes it both an ideal landing site and a good spot for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) during future human missions. This sets it apart from glacial patches that are closer to the polar regions, which are easily accessible, but which are extremely cold compared to the mid-latitudes. As Germán Martínez, a staff scientist at the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), said in a statement to GlacierHub: "n general, it's more feasible to go to low and mid latitudes, where temperatures are milder and solar energy is available throughout the year … in these mid and low latitudes, though, water ice is typically deeper in the subsurface than in polar latitudes." What's more, the Arcadian ice investigated by Hibbard and her colleagues may actually be more easily accessible than other known water ice deposits at mid-Martian latitudes. So if and when crewed missions become a regular occurrence on Mars, this ice may prove indispensable to astronauts and their habitats, providing everything from drinking and irrigation water to the raw material for manufacturing fuel. In time, the subsurface glacier may be tapped for an even more ambitious purpose—like the terraforming of Mars! If Mars is ever to become a warmer and wetter planet (as it was billions of years ago), then subsurface ice deposits like this one will be absolutely essential to the transition. https://phys.org/news/2021-05-mid-latitude-glaciers-mars-human-explorers.html
68 views · May 4th
A new map including rover paths of the Schrödinger basin, a geologically important area of the moon, could guide future exploration missions.The map was created by a team of interns at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, including Ellen Czaplinski, a U of A graduate student researcher at the Arkansas Center for Planetary Sciences and first author of a paper published in The Planetary Science Journal. The researchers identified significant geologic features of the Schrödinger basin, located near the lunar south pole. Schrödinger is the second-youngest impact basin on the moon and includes diverse crustal features and rock types that are important to understanding the moon's geological history. "When the Schrödinger basin was formed, some of these lithologies (the general physical characteristics of the rocks) may have been uplifted from very deep below the lunar surface," Czaplinski said. "Therefore, investigating these rocks up close is extremely important for answering high-priority science goals." In 2007, the National Research Council outlined scientific objectives and goals of future lunar missions, including exploration of the South Pole-Aitken basin, the oldest and deepest impact basin on the moon. Because the Schrödinger basin is located within the South Pole-Aitken basin, it presents a unique opportunity to study rocks that possibly originated deep below the surface, Czaplinski said. "Many of these rock types are exposed at the surface in multi-kilometer long exposures of rock outcrops in Schrödinger's 'peak ring,' an inner ring of uplifted rocks that formed with the basin. Sampling these rocks within the peak ring provides high scientific potential for further understanding the context of Schrödinger's lithologies." Along with the map, researchers created three potential paths for robotic rovers to travel through the Schrödinger basin to collect high-priority rock samples. https://phys.org/news/2021-05-lunar-future-exploration-missions.html
60 views · May 4th