Endoscopy decontamination involves the process of cleansing a substance or object to remove hazardous material including infectious diseases, radioactive substances and chemicals. Prevention of the spread of microorganism and other noxious contaminants which has the risk of threatening the health of human beings or animals and may damage the environment is the purpose of decontamination. The application of decontamination is majorly in the medical fields which include; veterinary science, surgery and dentistry.
Food preparation, environmental science and forensic science are the other areas in which the process of decontamination is applied. The process of decontamination involves three methods so as to eliminate pathogens or other substances from a spoiled implement. The three levels include disinfection, sterilization and sanitization.
Anti -microbial agents that are applied to the surface of nonliving objects in order to destroy microorganisms that are present in living things are known as Endoscopy disinfectants. The resistant bacterial spores are not killed by disinfection spores but other types of microorganism are eliminated. All types of microorganisms are killed by sterilization which is the more effective than disinfection. The cell wall of the microorganism is interfered with by disinfection process.
Disinfectants are of various types which include; oxidizing agents, phenolics, quaternary ammonium compounds , inorganic compounds and others. Chlorine, acids and bases, terpenes, metals and iodine are the types of inorganic compounds.Quaternary compounds are a large group of related compounds in which some have concentrated formulations.A large group of related compounds which have concentrated formulations are quaternary ammonium compounds. The group of chlorine as an inorganic compound includes hypochlorous acid, hypochlorite and chlorine.
There are several methods of decontamination which include physical cleaning, disinfection, antisepsis, sterilization, ultrasonic cleaning and water purification. Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, suspended solids and gases and biological contaminants from water. For the purpose of human consumption drinking water is purified and disinfected.
However water purification can be used for other purposes such as fulfilling the requirements of medical, chemical, industrial and pharmacological applications. There are methods that are used in water purification which include; sedimentation, filtration, distillation which are physical processes while biological process include slow sand filters or biologically active carbon also there are chemical processes which are flocculation and chlorination.
Reduction in concentration of particulate matter which are parasites, bacteria, fungi, algae and suspended particles with also the inclusion of the concentration of a range of dissolved and particulate matter. A method of decontamination that involves removing or eliminating, deactivation or killing all forms of life and any other biological agents like fungi, bacteria, viruses, unicellular organisms that are present in a specified region such as the volume of a fluid, medication or in a compound that is culture media is sterilization which is also a level of decontamination. The process of sterilization is achieved through heating, irradiation, filtration and high pressure. For further info, read more about -