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Acupuncture Mechanisms

Dr. CassoneAug 11, 2019, 1:09:20 AM
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The effects of acupuncture may be attributed to:

1. Peripheral effects (release of adenosine and nitric oxide, NO, by axonal and dorsal root reflexes with vasodilating effects)

2. Spinal effects (modulation of sympathetic tone and motor reflexes)

3. Modulation of endogenous descending pain inhibitory and facilitator systems

4. Change in the functional connectivity of the brain. Activation or deactivation of:

     a. limbic structures involved in stress/illness responses

     b. the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal, HPA, axis

     c. the prefrontal and frontal cortices.

5. Restoration of the default mode state

6. Modulation of parasympathetic activity

7. Activation of the reward and mirror systems

8. Modulation of activation of the immune system

9. Expectation, attention, conditioning and extinction of conditioned responses

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