They may not be a novice to us. They commonly appear in our homes and they are generally known as household pests. These are cockroaches. These are present in all the parts around the globe with special mention of tropics. Several varieties of cockroaches have been isolated from India. The most famous species are Periplaneta Americana and Blatta orientalis. They are part of the phylum Arthropoda and sophistication Insecta. An order that they are positioned is Dictyoptera. They most often inhabit houses, restaurants, hotels, bakeries, food stores and in many cases railway compartments and ship holds.
Cockroaches are nocturnal insects which remain hidden through the daytime in cracks, holes or crevices of kitchens, godowns, hotels, public toilets, neglected bags, boxes and other articles but appear at nighttime so that you can obtain their nutrition. These are fast runners and run extremely fast on being disturbed. Cockroaches also have their wings to fly so that you can avoid their predators. Body colour varies from brown to brownish black. Person is dorsoventrally flattened measuring 3-5 cm in size. Mouth bears mandibulate form of mouth parts. Eyes are compound like other arthropods suited for mosaic vision which has a single ocellus. Antennae bear around 100 segments and are filiform in shape. Pronotum is characteristically large in the dorsum from the head as being a hood. Forewings are somewhat thickened and are designated as tegmina even though the hind wings are membranous and fan shaped. Legs are cursorial. Males are recognized by a good a set of styli for the last abdominal segment referred to as sternum. Females bear a lower ovipositor for the seventh abdominal segment. External genitalia of male are asymmetrical in shape.
The breeding season for cockroaches is from March-September when they continue to be very active. Copulation is accompanied by egg laying. Eggs are laid in bag like structures known as ootheca which are deep brown in colour. Oothecae are marked by sculptured patterns where you can definite shape which is characteristic of a species. The amount of eggs in a ootheca varies from 15-40 arranged in double rows. Formation of ootheca takes a few days and often may be found attached to the substratum. Female lays around 100 oothecae in their own overall life span each containing 16 eggs. The hatching of eggs depends upon the humidity and temperature from the environment. They hatch after 35 days in summers but take 100 days in winter. The larval development is additionally influenced by the weather conditions. Nymphs or the larvae grow into adults in Six months in summers but will take 2 years for being adults in winters. The development of nymphs into adults is of hemimetabolous type and they also shed their cuticle during moulting. 10-13 moults have already been notice from the life history of cockroaches. Under favourable conditions 2-3 generations happen in 12 months otherwise simply a single generation is located.
Cockroaches are omnivorous and prey on a number of food materials. They're dirty, distasteful and odoriferous creatures and therefore are attracted towards garbage, food stuffs consumed by humans. They enter any food material consume it, discolour and spot it with faecal material and then leave behind a foul smell. They are also called transmitters of some diseases like tuberculosis, cholera, leprosy, dysentery and typhoid. Infestion of cockroaches in homes may be prevented by maintaining all the pipelines, safety tanks, tightly sealed. Food stuffs ought to be completely covered. Insecticides can be employed so that you can control them. Cockroaches could possibly be attracted perfectly into a source of food and after that could possibly be killed. Every one of the cracks and crevices with the houses should be sealed.
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